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Name Size Last modified (GMT) Description
Folder Documentation/ 2003-12-18 03:00:02
Folder arch/ 2003-12-18 02:57:59
Folder crypto/ 2003-12-18 02:59:58
Folder fs/ 2003-12-18 03:00:01
Folder include/ 2003-12-18 02:58:15
Folder init/ 2003-12-18 02:59:39
Folder ipc/ 2003-12-18 02:58:57
Folder kernel/ 2003-12-18 03:00:00
Folder lib/ 2003-12-18 02:59:44
Folder mm/ 2003-12-18 03:00:02
Folder net/ 2003-12-18 02:59:55
Folder scripts/ 2003-12-18 03:00:02
Folder security/ 2003-12-18 02:59:45
Folder sound/ 2003-12-18 02:59:45
Folder usr/ 2003-12-18 02:59:42
File COPYING 18691 bytes 2003-12-18 02:58:56
File CREDITS 84912 bytes 2003-12-18 02:59:06
File MAINTAINERS 50698 bytes 2003-12-18 02:58:57
File Makefile 32201 bytes 2003-12-18 02:59:05
File README 14489 bytes 2003-12-18 02:59:29
File REPORTING-BUGS 2815 bytes 2003-12-18 02:58:56
File drivers 0 bytes 2016-09-26 10:18:53

  1         Linux kernel release 2.6.xx
  2 
  3 These are the release notes for Linux version 2.6.  Read them carefully,
  4 as they tell you what this is all about, explain how to install the
  5 kernel, and what to do if something goes wrong. 
  6 
  7 WHAT IS LINUX?
  8 
  9   Linux is a Unix clone written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with
 10   assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net.
 11   It aims towards POSIX compliance. 
 12 
 13   It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged
 14   Unix, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries,
 15   demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory
 16   management and TCP/IP networking. 
 17 
 18   It is distributed under the GNU General Public License - see the
 19   accompanying COPYING file for more details. 
 20 
 21 ON WHAT HARDWARE DOES IT RUN?
 22 
 23   Linux was first developed for 386/486-based PCs.  These days it also
 24   runs on ARMs, DEC Alphas, SUN Sparcs, M68000 machines (like Atari and
 25   Amiga), MIPS and PowerPC, and others.
 26 
 27 DOCUMENTATION:
 28 
 29  - There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on
 30    the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to
 31    general UNIX questions.  I'd recommend looking into the documentation
 32    subdirectories on any Linux FTP site for the LDP (Linux Documentation
 33    Project) books.  This README is not meant to be documentation on the
 34    system: there are much better sources available.
 35 
 36  - There are various README files in the Documentation/ subdirectory:
 37    these typically contain kernel-specific installation notes for some 
 38    drivers for example. See ./Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what
 39    is contained in each file.  Please read the Changes file, as it
 40    contains information about the problems, which may result by upgrading
 41    your kernel.
 42 
 43  - The Documentation/DocBook/ subdirectory contains several guides for
 44    kernel developers and users.  These guides can be rendered in a
 45    number of formats:  PostScript (.ps), PDF, and HTML, among others.
 46    After installation, "make psdocs", "make pdfdocs", or "make htmldocs"
 47    will render the documentation in the requested format.
 48 
 49 INSTALLING the kernel:
 50 
 51  - If you install the full sources, put the kernel tarball in a
 52    directory where you have permissions (eg. your home directory) and
 53    unpack it:
 54 
 55                 gzip -cd linux-2.6.XX.tar.gz | tar xvf -
 56 
 57    Replace "XX" with the version number of the latest kernel.
 58 
 59    Do NOT use the /usr/src/linux area! This area has a (usually
 60    incomplete) set of kernel headers that are used by the library header
 61    files.  They should match the library, and not get messed up by
 62    whatever the kernel-du-jour happens to be.
 63 
 64  - You can also upgrade between 2.6.xx releases by patching.  Patches are
 65    distributed in the traditional gzip and the new bzip2 format.  To
 66    install by patching, get all the newer patch files, enter the
 67    top level directory of the kernel source (linux-2.6.xx) and execute:
 68 
 69                 gzip -cd ../patch-2.6.xx.gz | patch -p1
 70 
 71    or
 72                 bzip2 -dc ../patch-2.6.xx.bz2 | patch -p1
 73 
 74    (repeat xx for all versions bigger than the version of your current
 75    source tree, _in_order_) and you should be ok.  You may want to remove
 76    the backup files (xxx~ or xxx.orig), and make sure that there are no
 77    failed patches (xxx# or xxx.rej). If there are, either you or me has
 78    made a mistake.
 79 
 80    Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this
 81    process.  It determines the current kernel version and applies any
 82    patches found.
 83 
 84                 linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux
 85 
 86    The first argument in the command above is the location of the
 87    kernel source.  Patches are applied from the current directory, but
 88    an alternative directory can be specified as the second argument.
 89 
 90  - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around:
 91 
 92                 cd linux
 93                 make mrproper
 94 
 95    You should now have the sources correctly installed.
 96 
 97 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
 98 
 99    Compiling and running the 2.6.xx kernels requires up-to-date
100    versions of various software packages.  Consult
101    ./Documentation/Changes for the minimum version numbers required
102    and how to get updates for these packages.  Beware that using
103    excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect
104    errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that
105    you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during
106    build or operation.
107 
108 BUILD directory for the kernel:
109 
110    When compiling the kernel all output files will per default be
111    stored together with the kernel source code.
112    Using the option "make O=output/dir" allow you to specify an alternate
113    place for the output files (including .config).
114    Example:
115      kernel source code:        /usr/src/linux-2.6.N
116      build directory:           /home/name/build/kernel
117 
118    To configure and build the kernel use:
119    cd /usr/src/linux-2.6.N
120    make O=/home/name/build/kernel menuconfig
121    make O=/home/name/build/kernel
122    sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel install_modules install
123 
124    Please note: If the 'O=output/dir' option is used then it must be
125    used for all invocations of make.
126 
127 CONFIGURING the kernel:
128 
129    Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor
130    version.  New configuration options are added in each release, and
131    odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up
132    as expected.  If you want to carry your existing configuration to a
133    new version with minimal work, use "make oldconfig", which will
134    only ask you for the answers to new questions.
135 
136  - Alternate configuration commands are:
137         "make menuconfig"  Text based color menus, radiolists & dialogs.
138         "make xconfig"     X windows (Qt) based configuration tool.
139         "make gconfig"     X windows (Gtk) based configuration tool.
140         "make oldconfig"   Default all questions based on the contents of
141                            your existing ./.config file.
142    
143         NOTES on "make config":
144         - having unnecessary drivers will make the kernel bigger, and can
145           under some circumstances lead to problems: probing for a
146           nonexistent controller card may confuse your other controllers
147         - compiling the kernel with "Processor type" set higher than 386
148           will result in a kernel that does NOT work on a 386.  The
149           kernel will detect this on bootup, and give up.
150         - A kernel with math-emulation compiled in will still use the
151           coprocessor if one is present: the math emulation will just
152           never get used in that case.  The kernel will be slightly larger,
153           but will work on different machines regardless of whether they
154           have a math coprocessor or not. 
155         - the "kernel hacking" configuration details usually result in a
156           bigger or slower kernel (or both), and can even make the kernel
157           less stable by configuring some routines to actively try to
158           break bad code to find kernel problems (kmalloc()).  Thus you
159           should probably answer 'n' to the questions for
160           "development", "experimental", or "debugging" features.
161 
162  - Check the top Makefile for further site-dependent configuration
163    (default SVGA mode etc). 
164 
165 COMPILING the kernel:
166 
167  - Make sure you have gcc 2.95.3 available.
168    gcc 2.91.66 (egcs-1.1.2), and gcc 2.7.2.3 are known to miscompile
169    some parts of the kernel, and are *no longer supported*.
170    Also remember to upgrade your binutils package (for as/ld/nm and company)
171    if necessary. For more information, refer to ./Documentation/Changes.
172 
173    Please note that you can still run a.out user programs with this kernel.
174 
175  - Do a "make bzImage" to create a compressed kernel image.  If you want
176    to make a boot disk (without root filesystem or LILO), insert a floppy
177    in your A: drive, and do a "make bzdisk".  It is also possible to do
178    "make install" if you have lilo installed to suit the kernel makefiles,
179    but you may want to check your particular lilo setup first. 
180 
181    To do the actual install you have to be root, but none of the normal
182    build should require that. Don't take the name of root in vain.
183 
184  - In the unlikely event that your system cannot boot bzImage kernels you
185    can still compile your kernel as zImage. However, since zImage support
186    will be removed at some point in the future in favor of bzImage we
187    encourage people having problems with booting bzImage kernels to report
188    these, with detailed hardware configuration information, to the
189    linux-kernel mailing list and to H. Peter Anvin <hpa+linux@zytor.com>.
190 
191  - If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as `modules', you
192    will have to do "make modules" followed by "make modules_install".
193 
194  - Keep a backup kernel handy in case something goes wrong.  This is 
195    especially true for the development releases, since each new release
196    contains new code which has not been debugged.  Make sure you keep a
197    backup of the modules corresponding to that kernel, as well.  If you
198    are installing a new kernel with the same version number as your
199    working kernel, make a backup of your modules directory before you
200    do a "make modules_install".
201 
202  - In order to boot your new kernel, you'll need to copy the kernel
203    image (found in .../linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage after compilation)
204    to the place where your regular bootable kernel is found. 
205 
206    For some, this is on a floppy disk, in which case you can copy the
207    kernel bzImage file to /dev/fd0 to make a bootable floppy.
208 
209    If you boot Linux from the hard drive, chances are you use LILO which
210    uses the kernel image as specified in the file /etc/lilo.conf.  The
211    kernel image file is usually /vmlinuz, /boot/vmlinuz, /bzImage or
212    /boot/bzImage.  To use the new kernel, save a copy of the old image
213    and copy the new image over the old one.  Then, you MUST RERUN LILO
214    to update the loading map!! If you don't, you won't be able to boot
215    the new kernel image.
216 
217    Reinstalling LILO is usually a matter of running /sbin/lilo. 
218    You may wish to edit /etc/lilo.conf to specify an entry for your
219    old kernel image (say, /vmlinux.old) in case the new one does not
220    work.  See the LILO docs for more information. 
221 
222    After reinstalling LILO, you should be all set.  Shutdown the system,
223    reboot, and enjoy!
224 
225    If you ever need to change the default root device, video mode,
226    ramdisk size, etc.  in the kernel image, use the 'rdev' program (or
227    alternatively the LILO boot options when appropriate).  No need to
228    recompile the kernel to change these parameters. 
229 
230  - Reboot with the new kernel and enjoy. 
231 
232 IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:
233 
234  - If you have problems that seem to be due to kernel bugs, please check
235    the file MAINTAINERS to see if there is a particular person associated
236    with the part of the kernel that you are having trouble with. If there
237    isn't anyone listed there, then the second best thing is to mail
238    them to me (torvalds@osdl.org), and possibly to any other relevant
239    mailing-list or to the newsgroup.
240 
241  - In all bug-reports, *please* tell what kernel you are talking about,
242    how to duplicate the problem, and what your setup is (use your common
243    sense).  If the problem is new, tell me so, and if the problem is
244    old, please try to tell me when you first noticed it.
245 
246  - If the bug results in a message like
247 
248         unable to handle kernel paging request at address C0000010
249         Oops: 0002
250         EIP:   0010:XXXXXXXX
251         eax: xxxxxxxx   ebx: xxxxxxxx   ecx: xxxxxxxx   edx: xxxxxxxx
252         esi: xxxxxxxx   edi: xxxxxxxx   ebp: xxxxxxxx
253         ds: xxxx  es: xxxx  fs: xxxx  gs: xxxx
254         Pid: xx, process nr: xx
255         xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
256 
257    or similar kernel debugging information on your screen or in your
258    system log, please duplicate it *exactly*.  The dump may look
259    incomprehensible to you, but it does contain information that may
260    help debugging the problem.  The text above the dump is also
261    important: it tells something about why the kernel dumped code (in
262    the above example it's due to a bad kernel pointer). More information
263    on making sense of the dump is in Documentation/oops-tracing.txt
264 
265  - You can use the "ksymoops" program to make sense of the dump.  This
266    utility can be downloaded from
267    ftp://ftp.<country>.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops.
268    Alternately you can do the dump lookup by hand:
269 
270  - In debugging dumps like the above, it helps enormously if you can
271    look up what the EIP value means.  The hex value as such doesn't help
272    me or anybody else very much: it will depend on your particular
273    kernel setup.  What you should do is take the hex value from the EIP
274    line (ignore the "0010:"), and look it up in the kernel namelist to
275    see which kernel function contains the offending address.
276 
277    To find out the kernel function name, you'll need to find the system
278    binary associated with the kernel that exhibited the symptom.  This is
279    the file 'linux/vmlinux'.  To extract the namelist and match it against
280    the EIP from the kernel crash, do:
281 
282                 nm vmlinux | sort | less
283 
284    This will give you a list of kernel addresses sorted in ascending
285    order, from which it is simple to find the function that contains the
286    offending address.  Note that the address given by the kernel
287    debugging messages will not necessarily match exactly with the
288    function addresses (in fact, that is very unlikely), so you can't
289    just 'grep' the list: the list will, however, give you the starting
290    point of each kernel function, so by looking for the function that
291    has a starting address lower than the one you are searching for but
292    is followed by a function with a higher address you will find the one
293    you want.  In fact, it may be a good idea to include a bit of
294    "context" in your problem report, giving a few lines around the
295    interesting one. 
296 
297    If you for some reason cannot do the above (you have a pre-compiled
298    kernel image or similar), telling me as much about your setup as
299    possible will help. 
300 
301  - Alternately, you can use gdb on a running kernel. (read-only; i.e. you
302    cannot change values or set break points.) To do this, first compile the
303    kernel with -g; edit arch/i386/Makefile appropriately, then do a "make
304    clean". You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via "make config").
305 
306    After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do "gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore".
307    You can now use all the usual gdb commands. The command to look up the
308    point where your system crashed is "l *0xXXXXXXXX". (Replace the XXXes
309    with the EIP value.)
310 
311    gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because gdb (wrongly)
312    disregards the starting offset for which the kernel is compiled.
313 

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