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Linux/fs/proc/kcore.c

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  1 // SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
  2 /*
  3  *      fs/proc/kcore.c kernel ELF core dumper
  4  *
  5  *      Modelled on fs/exec.c:aout_core_dump()
  6  *      Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy@sw.oz.au>
  7  *      ELF version written by David Howells <David.Howells@nexor.co.uk>
  8  *      Modified and incorporated into 2.3.x by Tigran Aivazian <tigran@veritas.com>
  9  *      Support to dump vmalloc'd areas (ELF only), Tigran Aivazian <tigran@veritas.com>
 10  *      Safe accesses to vmalloc/direct-mapped discontiguous areas, Kanoj Sarcar <kanoj@sgi.com>
 11  */
 12 
 13 #include <linux/crash_core.h>
 14 #include <linux/mm.h>
 15 #include <linux/proc_fs.h>
 16 #include <linux/kcore.h>
 17 #include <linux/user.h>
 18 #include <linux/capability.h>
 19 #include <linux/elf.h>
 20 #include <linux/elfcore.h>
 21 #include <linux/notifier.h>
 22 #include <linux/vmalloc.h>
 23 #include <linux/highmem.h>
 24 #include <linux/printk.h>
 25 #include <linux/memblock.h>
 26 #include <linux/init.h>
 27 #include <linux/slab.h>
 28 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
 29 #include <asm/io.h>
 30 #include <linux/list.h>
 31 #include <linux/ioport.h>
 32 #include <linux/memory.h>
 33 #include <linux/sched/task.h>
 34 #include <asm/sections.h>
 35 #include "internal.h"
 36 
 37 #define CORE_STR "CORE"
 38 
 39 #ifndef ELF_CORE_EFLAGS
 40 #define ELF_CORE_EFLAGS 0
 41 #endif
 42 
 43 static struct proc_dir_entry *proc_root_kcore;
 44 
 45 
 46 #ifndef kc_vaddr_to_offset
 47 #define kc_vaddr_to_offset(v) ((v) - PAGE_OFFSET)
 48 #endif
 49 #ifndef kc_offset_to_vaddr
 50 #define kc_offset_to_vaddr(o) ((o) + PAGE_OFFSET)
 51 #endif
 52 
 53 static LIST_HEAD(kclist_head);
 54 static DECLARE_RWSEM(kclist_lock);
 55 static int kcore_need_update = 1;
 56 
 57 /* This doesn't grab kclist_lock, so it should only be used at init time. */
 58 void __init kclist_add(struct kcore_list *new, void *addr, size_t size,
 59                        int type)
 60 {
 61         new->addr = (unsigned long)addr;
 62         new->size = size;
 63         new->type = type;
 64 
 65         list_add_tail(&new->list, &kclist_head);
 66 }
 67 
 68 static size_t get_kcore_size(int *nphdr, size_t *phdrs_len, size_t *notes_len,
 69                              size_t *data_offset)
 70 {
 71         size_t try, size;
 72         struct kcore_list *m;
 73 
 74         *nphdr = 1; /* PT_NOTE */
 75         size = 0;
 76 
 77         list_for_each_entry(m, &kclist_head, list) {
 78                 try = kc_vaddr_to_offset((size_t)m->addr + m->size);
 79                 if (try > size)
 80                         size = try;
 81                 *nphdr = *nphdr + 1;
 82         }
 83 
 84         *phdrs_len = *nphdr * sizeof(struct elf_phdr);
 85         *notes_len = (4 * sizeof(struct elf_note) +
 86                       3 * ALIGN(sizeof(CORE_STR), 4) +
 87                       VMCOREINFO_NOTE_NAME_BYTES +
 88                       ALIGN(sizeof(struct elf_prstatus), 4) +
 89                       ALIGN(sizeof(struct elf_prpsinfo), 4) +
 90                       ALIGN(arch_task_struct_size, 4) +
 91                       ALIGN(vmcoreinfo_size, 4));
 92         *data_offset = PAGE_ALIGN(sizeof(struct elfhdr) + *phdrs_len +
 93                                   *notes_len);
 94         return *data_offset + size;
 95 }
 96 
 97 #ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
 98 /*
 99  * If no highmem, we can assume [0...max_low_pfn) continuous range of memory
100  * because memory hole is not as big as !HIGHMEM case.
101  * (HIGHMEM is special because part of memory is _invisible_ from the kernel.)
102  */
103 static int kcore_ram_list(struct list_head *head)
104 {
105         struct kcore_list *ent;
106 
107         ent = kmalloc(sizeof(*ent), GFP_KERNEL);
108         if (!ent)
109                 return -ENOMEM;
110         ent->addr = (unsigned long)__va(0);
111         ent->size = max_low_pfn << PAGE_SHIFT;
112         ent->type = KCORE_RAM;
113         list_add(&ent->list, head);
114         return 0;
115 }
116 
117 #else /* !CONFIG_HIGHMEM */
118 
119 #ifdef CONFIG_SPARSEMEM_VMEMMAP
120 /* calculate vmemmap's address from given system ram pfn and register it */
121 static int
122 get_sparsemem_vmemmap_info(struct kcore_list *ent, struct list_head *head)
123 {
124         unsigned long pfn = __pa(ent->addr) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
125         unsigned long nr_pages = ent->size >> PAGE_SHIFT;
126         unsigned long start, end;
127         struct kcore_list *vmm, *tmp;
128 
129 
130         start = ((unsigned long)pfn_to_page(pfn)) & PAGE_MASK;
131         end = ((unsigned long)pfn_to_page(pfn + nr_pages)) - 1;
132         end = PAGE_ALIGN(end);
133         /* overlap check (because we have to align page */
134         list_for_each_entry(tmp, head, list) {
135                 if (tmp->type != KCORE_VMEMMAP)
136                         continue;
137                 if (start < tmp->addr + tmp->size)
138                         if (end > tmp->addr)
139                                 end = tmp->addr;
140         }
141         if (start < end) {
142                 vmm = kmalloc(sizeof(*vmm), GFP_KERNEL);
143                 if (!vmm)
144                         return 0;
145                 vmm->addr = start;
146                 vmm->size = end - start;
147                 vmm->type = KCORE_VMEMMAP;
148                 list_add_tail(&vmm->list, head);
149         }
150         return 1;
151 
152 }
153 #else
154 static int
155 get_sparsemem_vmemmap_info(struct kcore_list *ent, struct list_head *head)
156 {
157         return 1;
158 }
159 
160 #endif
161 
162 static int
163 kclist_add_private(unsigned long pfn, unsigned long nr_pages, void *arg)
164 {
165         struct list_head *head = (struct list_head *)arg;
166         struct kcore_list *ent;
167         struct page *p;
168 
169         if (!pfn_valid(pfn))
170                 return 1;
171 
172         p = pfn_to_page(pfn);
173         if (!memmap_valid_within(pfn, p, page_zone(p)))
174                 return 1;
175 
176         ent = kmalloc(sizeof(*ent), GFP_KERNEL);
177         if (!ent)
178                 return -ENOMEM;
179         ent->addr = (unsigned long)page_to_virt(p);
180         ent->size = nr_pages << PAGE_SHIFT;
181 
182         if (!virt_addr_valid(ent->addr))
183                 goto free_out;
184 
185         /* cut not-mapped area. ....from ppc-32 code. */
186         if (ULONG_MAX - ent->addr < ent->size)
187                 ent->size = ULONG_MAX - ent->addr;
188 
189         /*
190          * We've already checked virt_addr_valid so we know this address
191          * is a valid pointer, therefore we can check against it to determine
192          * if we need to trim
193          */
194         if (VMALLOC_START > ent->addr) {
195                 if (VMALLOC_START - ent->addr < ent->size)
196                         ent->size = VMALLOC_START - ent->addr;
197         }
198 
199         ent->type = KCORE_RAM;
200         list_add_tail(&ent->list, head);
201 
202         if (!get_sparsemem_vmemmap_info(ent, head)) {
203                 list_del(&ent->list);
204                 goto free_out;
205         }
206 
207         return 0;
208 free_out:
209         kfree(ent);
210         return 1;
211 }
212 
213 static int kcore_ram_list(struct list_head *list)
214 {
215         int nid, ret;
216         unsigned long end_pfn;
217 
218         /* Not inialized....update now */
219         /* find out "max pfn" */
220         end_pfn = 0;
221         for_each_node_state(nid, N_MEMORY) {
222                 unsigned long node_end;
223                 node_end = node_end_pfn(nid);
224                 if (end_pfn < node_end)
225                         end_pfn = node_end;
226         }
227         /* scan 0 to max_pfn */
228         ret = walk_system_ram_range(0, end_pfn, list, kclist_add_private);
229         if (ret)
230                 return -ENOMEM;
231         return 0;
232 }
233 #endif /* CONFIG_HIGHMEM */
234 
235 static int kcore_update_ram(void)
236 {
237         LIST_HEAD(list);
238         LIST_HEAD(garbage);
239         int nphdr;
240         size_t phdrs_len, notes_len, data_offset;
241         struct kcore_list *tmp, *pos;
242         int ret = 0;
243 
244         down_write(&kclist_lock);
245         if (!xchg(&kcore_need_update, 0))
246                 goto out;
247 
248         ret = kcore_ram_list(&list);
249         if (ret) {
250                 /* Couldn't get the RAM list, try again next time. */
251                 WRITE_ONCE(kcore_need_update, 1);
252                 list_splice_tail(&list, &garbage);
253                 goto out;
254         }
255 
256         list_for_each_entry_safe(pos, tmp, &kclist_head, list) {
257                 if (pos->type == KCORE_RAM || pos->type == KCORE_VMEMMAP)
258                         list_move(&pos->list, &garbage);
259         }
260         list_splice_tail(&list, &kclist_head);
261 
262         proc_root_kcore->size = get_kcore_size(&nphdr, &phdrs_len, &notes_len,
263                                                &data_offset);
264 
265 out:
266         up_write(&kclist_lock);
267         list_for_each_entry_safe(pos, tmp, &garbage, list) {
268                 list_del(&pos->list);
269                 kfree(pos);
270         }
271         return ret;
272 }
273 
274 static void append_kcore_note(char *notes, size_t *i, const char *name,
275                               unsigned int type, const void *desc,
276                               size_t descsz)
277 {
278         struct elf_note *note = (struct elf_note *)&notes[*i];
279 
280         note->n_namesz = strlen(name) + 1;
281         note->n_descsz = descsz;
282         note->n_type = type;
283         *i += sizeof(*note);
284         memcpy(&notes[*i], name, note->n_namesz);
285         *i = ALIGN(*i + note->n_namesz, 4);
286         memcpy(&notes[*i], desc, descsz);
287         *i = ALIGN(*i + descsz, 4);
288 }
289 
290 static ssize_t
291 read_kcore(struct file *file, char __user *buffer, size_t buflen, loff_t *fpos)
292 {
293         char *buf = file->private_data;
294         size_t phdrs_offset, notes_offset, data_offset;
295         size_t phdrs_len, notes_len;
296         struct kcore_list *m;
297         size_t tsz;
298         int nphdr;
299         unsigned long start;
300         size_t orig_buflen = buflen;
301         int ret = 0;
302 
303         down_read(&kclist_lock);
304 
305         get_kcore_size(&nphdr, &phdrs_len, &notes_len, &data_offset);
306         phdrs_offset = sizeof(struct elfhdr);
307         notes_offset = phdrs_offset + phdrs_len;
308 
309         /* ELF file header. */
310         if (buflen && *fpos < sizeof(struct elfhdr)) {
311                 struct elfhdr ehdr = {
312                         .e_ident = {
313                                 [EI_MAG0] = ELFMAG0,
314                                 [EI_MAG1] = ELFMAG1,
315                                 [EI_MAG2] = ELFMAG2,
316                                 [EI_MAG3] = ELFMAG3,
317                                 [EI_CLASS] = ELF_CLASS,
318                                 [EI_DATA] = ELF_DATA,
319                                 [EI_VERSION] = EV_CURRENT,
320                                 [EI_OSABI] = ELF_OSABI,
321                         },
322                         .e_type = ET_CORE,
323                         .e_machine = ELF_ARCH,
324                         .e_version = EV_CURRENT,
325                         .e_phoff = sizeof(struct elfhdr),
326                         .e_flags = ELF_CORE_EFLAGS,
327                         .e_ehsize = sizeof(struct elfhdr),
328                         .e_phentsize = sizeof(struct elf_phdr),
329                         .e_phnum = nphdr,
330                 };
331 
332                 tsz = min_t(size_t, buflen, sizeof(struct elfhdr) - *fpos);
333                 if (copy_to_user(buffer, (char *)&ehdr + *fpos, tsz)) {
334                         ret = -EFAULT;
335                         goto out;
336                 }
337 
338                 buffer += tsz;
339                 buflen -= tsz;
340                 *fpos += tsz;
341         }
342 
343         /* ELF program headers. */
344         if (buflen && *fpos < phdrs_offset + phdrs_len) {
345                 struct elf_phdr *phdrs, *phdr;
346 
347                 phdrs = kzalloc(phdrs_len, GFP_KERNEL);
348                 if (!phdrs) {
349                         ret = -ENOMEM;
350                         goto out;
351                 }
352 
353                 phdrs[0].p_type = PT_NOTE;
354                 phdrs[0].p_offset = notes_offset;
355                 phdrs[0].p_filesz = notes_len;
356 
357                 phdr = &phdrs[1];
358                 list_for_each_entry(m, &kclist_head, list) {
359                         phdr->p_type = PT_LOAD;
360                         phdr->p_flags = PF_R | PF_W | PF_X;
361                         phdr->p_offset = kc_vaddr_to_offset(m->addr) + data_offset;
362                         if (m->type == KCORE_REMAP)
363                                 phdr->p_vaddr = (size_t)m->vaddr;
364                         else
365                                 phdr->p_vaddr = (size_t)m->addr;
366                         if (m->type == KCORE_RAM || m->type == KCORE_REMAP)
367                                 phdr->p_paddr = __pa(m->addr);
368                         else if (m->type == KCORE_TEXT)
369                                 phdr->p_paddr = __pa_symbol(m->addr);
370                         else
371                                 phdr->p_paddr = (elf_addr_t)-1;
372                         phdr->p_filesz = phdr->p_memsz = m->size;
373                         phdr->p_align = PAGE_SIZE;
374                         phdr++;
375                 }
376 
377                 tsz = min_t(size_t, buflen, phdrs_offset + phdrs_len - *fpos);
378                 if (copy_to_user(buffer, (char *)phdrs + *fpos - phdrs_offset,
379                                  tsz)) {
380                         kfree(phdrs);
381                         ret = -EFAULT;
382                         goto out;
383                 }
384                 kfree(phdrs);
385 
386                 buffer += tsz;
387                 buflen -= tsz;
388                 *fpos += tsz;
389         }
390 
391         /* ELF note segment. */
392         if (buflen && *fpos < notes_offset + notes_len) {
393                 struct elf_prstatus prstatus = {};
394                 struct elf_prpsinfo prpsinfo = {
395                         .pr_sname = 'R',
396                         .pr_fname = "vmlinux",
397                 };
398                 char *notes;
399                 size_t i = 0;
400 
401                 strlcpy(prpsinfo.pr_psargs, saved_command_line,
402                         sizeof(prpsinfo.pr_psargs));
403 
404                 notes = kzalloc(notes_len, GFP_KERNEL);
405                 if (!notes) {
406                         ret = -ENOMEM;
407                         goto out;
408                 }
409 
410                 append_kcore_note(notes, &i, CORE_STR, NT_PRSTATUS, &prstatus,
411                                   sizeof(prstatus));
412                 append_kcore_note(notes, &i, CORE_STR, NT_PRPSINFO, &prpsinfo,
413                                   sizeof(prpsinfo));
414                 append_kcore_note(notes, &i, CORE_STR, NT_TASKSTRUCT, current,
415                                   arch_task_struct_size);
416                 /*
417                  * vmcoreinfo_size is mostly constant after init time, but it
418                  * can be changed by crash_save_vmcoreinfo(). Racing here with a
419                  * panic on another CPU before the machine goes down is insanely
420                  * unlikely, but it's better to not leave potential buffer
421                  * overflows lying around, regardless.
422                  */
423                 append_kcore_note(notes, &i, VMCOREINFO_NOTE_NAME, 0,
424                                   vmcoreinfo_data,
425                                   min(vmcoreinfo_size, notes_len - i));
426 
427                 tsz = min_t(size_t, buflen, notes_offset + notes_len - *fpos);
428                 if (copy_to_user(buffer, notes + *fpos - notes_offset, tsz)) {
429                         kfree(notes);
430                         ret = -EFAULT;
431                         goto out;
432                 }
433                 kfree(notes);
434 
435                 buffer += tsz;
436                 buflen -= tsz;
437                 *fpos += tsz;
438         }
439 
440         /*
441          * Check to see if our file offset matches with any of
442          * the addresses in the elf_phdr on our list.
443          */
444         start = kc_offset_to_vaddr(*fpos - data_offset);
445         if ((tsz = (PAGE_SIZE - (start & ~PAGE_MASK))) > buflen)
446                 tsz = buflen;
447 
448         m = NULL;
449         while (buflen) {
450                 /*
451                  * If this is the first iteration or the address is not within
452                  * the previous entry, search for a matching entry.
453                  */
454                 if (!m || start < m->addr || start >= m->addr + m->size) {
455                         list_for_each_entry(m, &kclist_head, list) {
456                                 if (start >= m->addr &&
457                                     start < m->addr + m->size)
458                                         break;
459                         }
460                 }
461 
462                 if (&m->list == &kclist_head) {
463                         if (clear_user(buffer, tsz)) {
464                                 ret = -EFAULT;
465                                 goto out;
466                         }
467                         m = NULL;       /* skip the list anchor */
468                 } else if (m->type == KCORE_VMALLOC) {
469                         vread(buf, (char *)start, tsz);
470                         /* we have to zero-fill user buffer even if no read */
471                         if (copy_to_user(buffer, buf, tsz)) {
472                                 ret = -EFAULT;
473                                 goto out;
474                         }
475                 } else if (m->type == KCORE_USER) {
476                         /* User page is handled prior to normal kernel page: */
477                         if (copy_to_user(buffer, (char *)start, tsz)) {
478                                 ret = -EFAULT;
479                                 goto out;
480                         }
481                 } else {
482                         if (kern_addr_valid(start)) {
483                                 /*
484                                  * Using bounce buffer to bypass the
485                                  * hardened user copy kernel text checks.
486                                  */
487                                 if (probe_kernel_read(buf, (void *) start, tsz)) {
488                                         if (clear_user(buffer, tsz)) {
489                                                 ret = -EFAULT;
490                                                 goto out;
491                                         }
492                                 } else {
493                                         if (copy_to_user(buffer, buf, tsz)) {
494                                                 ret = -EFAULT;
495                                                 goto out;
496                                         }
497                                 }
498                         } else {
499                                 if (clear_user(buffer, tsz)) {
500                                         ret = -EFAULT;
501                                         goto out;
502                                 }
503                         }
504                 }
505                 buflen -= tsz;
506                 *fpos += tsz;
507                 buffer += tsz;
508                 start += tsz;
509                 tsz = (buflen > PAGE_SIZE ? PAGE_SIZE : buflen);
510         }
511 
512 out:
513         up_read(&kclist_lock);
514         if (ret)
515                 return ret;
516         return orig_buflen - buflen;
517 }
518 
519 static int open_kcore(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
520 {
521         if (!capable(CAP_SYS_RAWIO))
522                 return -EPERM;
523 
524         filp->private_data = kmalloc(PAGE_SIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
525         if (!filp->private_data)
526                 return -ENOMEM;
527 
528         if (kcore_need_update)
529                 kcore_update_ram();
530         if (i_size_read(inode) != proc_root_kcore->size) {
531                 inode_lock(inode);
532                 i_size_write(inode, proc_root_kcore->size);
533                 inode_unlock(inode);
534         }
535         return 0;
536 }
537 
538 static int release_kcore(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
539 {
540         kfree(file->private_data);
541         return 0;
542 }
543 
544 static const struct file_operations proc_kcore_operations = {
545         .read           = read_kcore,
546         .open           = open_kcore,
547         .release        = release_kcore,
548         .llseek         = default_llseek,
549 };
550 
551 /* just remember that we have to update kcore */
552 static int __meminit kcore_callback(struct notifier_block *self,
553                                     unsigned long action, void *arg)
554 {
555         switch (action) {
556         case MEM_ONLINE:
557         case MEM_OFFLINE:
558                 kcore_need_update = 1;
559                 break;
560         }
561         return NOTIFY_OK;
562 }
563 
564 static struct notifier_block kcore_callback_nb __meminitdata = {
565         .notifier_call = kcore_callback,
566         .priority = 0,
567 };
568 
569 static struct kcore_list kcore_vmalloc;
570 
571 #ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_PROC_KCORE_TEXT
572 static struct kcore_list kcore_text;
573 /*
574  * If defined, special segment is used for mapping kernel text instead of
575  * direct-map area. We need to create special TEXT section.
576  */
577 static void __init proc_kcore_text_init(void)
578 {
579         kclist_add(&kcore_text, _text, _end - _text, KCORE_TEXT);
580 }
581 #else
582 static void __init proc_kcore_text_init(void)
583 {
584 }
585 #endif
586 
587 #if defined(CONFIG_MODULES) && defined(MODULES_VADDR)
588 /*
589  * MODULES_VADDR has no intersection with VMALLOC_ADDR.
590  */
591 struct kcore_list kcore_modules;
592 static void __init add_modules_range(void)
593 {
594         if (MODULES_VADDR != VMALLOC_START && MODULES_END != VMALLOC_END) {
595                 kclist_add(&kcore_modules, (void *)MODULES_VADDR,
596                         MODULES_END - MODULES_VADDR, KCORE_VMALLOC);
597         }
598 }
599 #else
600 static void __init add_modules_range(void)
601 {
602 }
603 #endif
604 
605 static int __init proc_kcore_init(void)
606 {
607         proc_root_kcore = proc_create("kcore", S_IRUSR, NULL,
608                                       &proc_kcore_operations);
609         if (!proc_root_kcore) {
610                 pr_err("couldn't create /proc/kcore\n");
611                 return 0; /* Always returns 0. */
612         }
613         /* Store text area if it's special */
614         proc_kcore_text_init();
615         /* Store vmalloc area */
616         kclist_add(&kcore_vmalloc, (void *)VMALLOC_START,
617                 VMALLOC_END - VMALLOC_START, KCORE_VMALLOC);
618         add_modules_range();
619         /* Store direct-map area from physical memory map */
620         kcore_update_ram();
621         register_hotmemory_notifier(&kcore_callback_nb);
622 
623         return 0;
624 }
625 fs_initcall(proc_kcore_init);
626 

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