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TOMOYO Linux Cross Reference
Linux/mm/backing-dev.c

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  1 
  2 #include <linux/wait.h>
  3 #include <linux/backing-dev.h>
  4 #include <linux/kthread.h>
  5 #include <linux/freezer.h>
  6 #include <linux/fs.h>
  7 #include <linux/pagemap.h>
  8 #include <linux/mm.h>
  9 #include <linux/sched.h>
 10 #include <linux/module.h>
 11 #include <linux/writeback.h>
 12 #include <linux/device.h>
 13 #include <trace/events/writeback.h>
 14 
 15 static atomic_long_t bdi_seq = ATOMIC_LONG_INIT(0);
 16 
 17 struct backing_dev_info noop_backing_dev_info = {
 18         .name           = "noop",
 19         .capabilities   = BDI_CAP_NO_ACCT_AND_WRITEBACK,
 20 };
 21 
 22 static struct class *bdi_class;
 23 
 24 /*
 25  * bdi_lock protects updates to bdi_list. bdi_list has RCU reader side
 26  * locking.
 27  */
 28 DEFINE_SPINLOCK(bdi_lock);
 29 LIST_HEAD(bdi_list);
 30 
 31 /* bdi_wq serves all asynchronous writeback tasks */
 32 struct workqueue_struct *bdi_wq;
 33 
 34 #ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
 35 #include <linux/debugfs.h>
 36 #include <linux/seq_file.h>
 37 
 38 static struct dentry *bdi_debug_root;
 39 
 40 static void bdi_debug_init(void)
 41 {
 42         bdi_debug_root = debugfs_create_dir("bdi", NULL);
 43 }
 44 
 45 static int bdi_debug_stats_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
 46 {
 47         struct backing_dev_info *bdi = m->private;
 48         struct bdi_writeback *wb = &bdi->wb;
 49         unsigned long background_thresh;
 50         unsigned long dirty_thresh;
 51         unsigned long bdi_thresh;
 52         unsigned long nr_dirty, nr_io, nr_more_io, nr_dirty_time;
 53         struct inode *inode;
 54 
 55         nr_dirty = nr_io = nr_more_io = nr_dirty_time = 0;
 56         spin_lock(&wb->list_lock);
 57         list_for_each_entry(inode, &wb->b_dirty, i_wb_list)
 58                 nr_dirty++;
 59         list_for_each_entry(inode, &wb->b_io, i_wb_list)
 60                 nr_io++;
 61         list_for_each_entry(inode, &wb->b_more_io, i_wb_list)
 62                 nr_more_io++;
 63         list_for_each_entry(inode, &wb->b_dirty_time, i_wb_list)
 64                 if (inode->i_state & I_DIRTY_TIME)
 65                         nr_dirty_time++;
 66         spin_unlock(&wb->list_lock);
 67 
 68         global_dirty_limits(&background_thresh, &dirty_thresh);
 69         bdi_thresh = bdi_dirty_limit(bdi, dirty_thresh);
 70 
 71 #define K(x) ((x) << (PAGE_SHIFT - 10))
 72         seq_printf(m,
 73                    "BdiWriteback:       %10lu kB\n"
 74                    "BdiReclaimable:     %10lu kB\n"
 75                    "BdiDirtyThresh:     %10lu kB\n"
 76                    "DirtyThresh:        %10lu kB\n"
 77                    "BackgroundThresh:   %10lu kB\n"
 78                    "BdiDirtied:         %10lu kB\n"
 79                    "BdiWritten:         %10lu kB\n"
 80                    "BdiWriteBandwidth:  %10lu kBps\n"
 81                    "b_dirty:            %10lu\n"
 82                    "b_io:               %10lu\n"
 83                    "b_more_io:          %10lu\n"
 84                    "b_dirty_time:       %10lu\n"
 85                    "bdi_list:           %10u\n"
 86                    "state:              %10lx\n",
 87                    (unsigned long) K(bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_WRITEBACK)),
 88                    (unsigned long) K(bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_RECLAIMABLE)),
 89                    K(bdi_thresh),
 90                    K(dirty_thresh),
 91                    K(background_thresh),
 92                    (unsigned long) K(bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_DIRTIED)),
 93                    (unsigned long) K(bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_WRITTEN)),
 94                    (unsigned long) K(bdi->write_bandwidth),
 95                    nr_dirty,
 96                    nr_io,
 97                    nr_more_io,
 98                    nr_dirty_time,
 99                    !list_empty(&bdi->bdi_list), bdi->state);
100 #undef K
101 
102         return 0;
103 }
104 
105 static int bdi_debug_stats_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
106 {
107         return single_open(file, bdi_debug_stats_show, inode->i_private);
108 }
109 
110 static const struct file_operations bdi_debug_stats_fops = {
111         .open           = bdi_debug_stats_open,
112         .read           = seq_read,
113         .llseek         = seq_lseek,
114         .release        = single_release,
115 };
116 
117 static void bdi_debug_register(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, const char *name)
118 {
119         bdi->debug_dir = debugfs_create_dir(name, bdi_debug_root);
120         bdi->debug_stats = debugfs_create_file("stats", 0444, bdi->debug_dir,
121                                                bdi, &bdi_debug_stats_fops);
122 }
123 
124 static void bdi_debug_unregister(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
125 {
126         debugfs_remove(bdi->debug_stats);
127         debugfs_remove(bdi->debug_dir);
128 }
129 #else
130 static inline void bdi_debug_init(void)
131 {
132 }
133 static inline void bdi_debug_register(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
134                                       const char *name)
135 {
136 }
137 static inline void bdi_debug_unregister(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
138 {
139 }
140 #endif
141 
142 static ssize_t read_ahead_kb_store(struct device *dev,
143                                   struct device_attribute *attr,
144                                   const char *buf, size_t count)
145 {
146         struct backing_dev_info *bdi = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
147         unsigned long read_ahead_kb;
148         ssize_t ret;
149 
150         ret = kstrtoul(buf, 10, &read_ahead_kb);
151         if (ret < 0)
152                 return ret;
153 
154         bdi->ra_pages = read_ahead_kb >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 10);
155 
156         return count;
157 }
158 
159 #define K(pages) ((pages) << (PAGE_SHIFT - 10))
160 
161 #define BDI_SHOW(name, expr)                                            \
162 static ssize_t name##_show(struct device *dev,                          \
163                            struct device_attribute *attr, char *page)   \
164 {                                                                       \
165         struct backing_dev_info *bdi = dev_get_drvdata(dev);            \
166                                                                         \
167         return snprintf(page, PAGE_SIZE-1, "%lld\n", (long long)expr);  \
168 }                                                                       \
169 static DEVICE_ATTR_RW(name);
170 
171 BDI_SHOW(read_ahead_kb, K(bdi->ra_pages))
172 
173 static ssize_t min_ratio_store(struct device *dev,
174                 struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t count)
175 {
176         struct backing_dev_info *bdi = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
177         unsigned int ratio;
178         ssize_t ret;
179 
180         ret = kstrtouint(buf, 10, &ratio);
181         if (ret < 0)
182                 return ret;
183 
184         ret = bdi_set_min_ratio(bdi, ratio);
185         if (!ret)
186                 ret = count;
187 
188         return ret;
189 }
190 BDI_SHOW(min_ratio, bdi->min_ratio)
191 
192 static ssize_t max_ratio_store(struct device *dev,
193                 struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t count)
194 {
195         struct backing_dev_info *bdi = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
196         unsigned int ratio;
197         ssize_t ret;
198 
199         ret = kstrtouint(buf, 10, &ratio);
200         if (ret < 0)
201                 return ret;
202 
203         ret = bdi_set_max_ratio(bdi, ratio);
204         if (!ret)
205                 ret = count;
206 
207         return ret;
208 }
209 BDI_SHOW(max_ratio, bdi->max_ratio)
210 
211 static ssize_t stable_pages_required_show(struct device *dev,
212                                           struct device_attribute *attr,
213                                           char *page)
214 {
215         struct backing_dev_info *bdi = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
216 
217         return snprintf(page, PAGE_SIZE-1, "%d\n",
218                         bdi_cap_stable_pages_required(bdi) ? 1 : 0);
219 }
220 static DEVICE_ATTR_RO(stable_pages_required);
221 
222 static struct attribute *bdi_dev_attrs[] = {
223         &dev_attr_read_ahead_kb.attr,
224         &dev_attr_min_ratio.attr,
225         &dev_attr_max_ratio.attr,
226         &dev_attr_stable_pages_required.attr,
227         NULL,
228 };
229 ATTRIBUTE_GROUPS(bdi_dev);
230 
231 static __init int bdi_class_init(void)
232 {
233         bdi_class = class_create(THIS_MODULE, "bdi");
234         if (IS_ERR(bdi_class))
235                 return PTR_ERR(bdi_class);
236 
237         bdi_class->dev_groups = bdi_dev_groups;
238         bdi_debug_init();
239         return 0;
240 }
241 postcore_initcall(bdi_class_init);
242 
243 static int __init default_bdi_init(void)
244 {
245         int err;
246 
247         bdi_wq = alloc_workqueue("writeback", WQ_MEM_RECLAIM | WQ_FREEZABLE |
248                                               WQ_UNBOUND | WQ_SYSFS, 0);
249         if (!bdi_wq)
250                 return -ENOMEM;
251 
252         err = bdi_init(&noop_backing_dev_info);
253 
254         return err;
255 }
256 subsys_initcall(default_bdi_init);
257 
258 int bdi_has_dirty_io(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
259 {
260         return wb_has_dirty_io(&bdi->wb);
261 }
262 
263 /*
264  * This function is used when the first inode for this bdi is marked dirty. It
265  * wakes-up the corresponding bdi thread which should then take care of the
266  * periodic background write-out of dirty inodes. Since the write-out would
267  * starts only 'dirty_writeback_interval' centisecs from now anyway, we just
268  * set up a timer which wakes the bdi thread up later.
269  *
270  * Note, we wouldn't bother setting up the timer, but this function is on the
271  * fast-path (used by '__mark_inode_dirty()'), so we save few context switches
272  * by delaying the wake-up.
273  *
274  * We have to be careful not to postpone flush work if it is scheduled for
275  * earlier. Thus we use queue_delayed_work().
276  */
277 void bdi_wakeup_thread_delayed(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
278 {
279         unsigned long timeout;
280 
281         timeout = msecs_to_jiffies(dirty_writeback_interval * 10);
282         spin_lock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
283         if (test_bit(BDI_registered, &bdi->state))
284                 queue_delayed_work(bdi_wq, &bdi->wb.dwork, timeout);
285         spin_unlock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
286 }
287 
288 /*
289  * Remove bdi from bdi_list, and ensure that it is no longer visible
290  */
291 static void bdi_remove_from_list(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
292 {
293         spin_lock_bh(&bdi_lock);
294         list_del_rcu(&bdi->bdi_list);
295         spin_unlock_bh(&bdi_lock);
296 
297         synchronize_rcu_expedited();
298 }
299 
300 int bdi_register(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, struct device *parent,
301                 const char *fmt, ...)
302 {
303         va_list args;
304         struct device *dev;
305 
306         if (bdi->dev)   /* The driver needs to use separate queues per device */
307                 return 0;
308 
309         va_start(args, fmt);
310         dev = device_create_vargs(bdi_class, parent, MKDEV(0, 0), bdi, fmt, args);
311         va_end(args);
312         if (IS_ERR(dev))
313                 return PTR_ERR(dev);
314 
315         bdi->dev = dev;
316 
317         bdi_debug_register(bdi, dev_name(dev));
318         set_bit(BDI_registered, &bdi->state);
319 
320         spin_lock_bh(&bdi_lock);
321         list_add_tail_rcu(&bdi->bdi_list, &bdi_list);
322         spin_unlock_bh(&bdi_lock);
323 
324         trace_writeback_bdi_register(bdi);
325         return 0;
326 }
327 EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_register);
328 
329 int bdi_register_dev(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, dev_t dev)
330 {
331         return bdi_register(bdi, NULL, "%u:%u", MAJOR(dev), MINOR(dev));
332 }
333 EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_register_dev);
334 
335 /*
336  * Remove bdi from the global list and shutdown any threads we have running
337  */
338 static void bdi_wb_shutdown(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
339 {
340         /* Make sure nobody queues further work */
341         spin_lock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
342         if (!test_and_clear_bit(BDI_registered, &bdi->state)) {
343                 spin_unlock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
344                 return;
345         }
346         spin_unlock_bh(&bdi->wb_lock);
347 
348         /*
349          * Make sure nobody finds us on the bdi_list anymore
350          */
351         bdi_remove_from_list(bdi);
352 
353         /*
354          * Drain work list and shutdown the delayed_work.  At this point,
355          * @bdi->bdi_list is empty telling bdi_Writeback_workfn() that @bdi
356          * is dying and its work_list needs to be drained no matter what.
357          */
358         mod_delayed_work(bdi_wq, &bdi->wb.dwork, 0);
359         flush_delayed_work(&bdi->wb.dwork);
360 }
361 
362 static void bdi_wb_init(struct bdi_writeback *wb, struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
363 {
364         memset(wb, 0, sizeof(*wb));
365 
366         wb->bdi = bdi;
367         wb->last_old_flush = jiffies;
368         INIT_LIST_HEAD(&wb->b_dirty);
369         INIT_LIST_HEAD(&wb->b_io);
370         INIT_LIST_HEAD(&wb->b_more_io);
371         INIT_LIST_HEAD(&wb->b_dirty_time);
372         spin_lock_init(&wb->list_lock);
373         INIT_DELAYED_WORK(&wb->dwork, bdi_writeback_workfn);
374 }
375 
376 /*
377  * Initial write bandwidth: 100 MB/s
378  */
379 #define INIT_BW         (100 << (20 - PAGE_SHIFT))
380 
381 int bdi_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
382 {
383         int i, err;
384 
385         bdi->dev = NULL;
386 
387         bdi->min_ratio = 0;
388         bdi->max_ratio = 100;
389         bdi->max_prop_frac = FPROP_FRAC_BASE;
390         spin_lock_init(&bdi->wb_lock);
391         INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->bdi_list);
392         INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->work_list);
393 
394         bdi_wb_init(&bdi->wb, bdi);
395 
396         for (i = 0; i < NR_BDI_STAT_ITEMS; i++) {
397                 err = percpu_counter_init(&bdi->bdi_stat[i], 0, GFP_KERNEL);
398                 if (err)
399                         goto err;
400         }
401 
402         bdi->dirty_exceeded = 0;
403 
404         bdi->bw_time_stamp = jiffies;
405         bdi->written_stamp = 0;
406 
407         bdi->balanced_dirty_ratelimit = INIT_BW;
408         bdi->dirty_ratelimit = INIT_BW;
409         bdi->write_bandwidth = INIT_BW;
410         bdi->avg_write_bandwidth = INIT_BW;
411 
412         err = fprop_local_init_percpu(&bdi->completions, GFP_KERNEL);
413 
414         if (err) {
415 err:
416                 while (i--)
417                         percpu_counter_destroy(&bdi->bdi_stat[i]);
418         }
419 
420         return err;
421 }
422 EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_init);
423 
424 void bdi_destroy(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
425 {
426         int i;
427 
428         bdi_wb_shutdown(bdi);
429         bdi_set_min_ratio(bdi, 0);
430 
431         WARN_ON(!list_empty(&bdi->work_list));
432         WARN_ON(delayed_work_pending(&bdi->wb.dwork));
433 
434         if (bdi->dev) {
435                 bdi_debug_unregister(bdi);
436                 device_unregister(bdi->dev);
437                 bdi->dev = NULL;
438         }
439 
440         for (i = 0; i < NR_BDI_STAT_ITEMS; i++)
441                 percpu_counter_destroy(&bdi->bdi_stat[i]);
442         fprop_local_destroy_percpu(&bdi->completions);
443 }
444 EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_destroy);
445 
446 /*
447  * For use from filesystems to quickly init and register a bdi associated
448  * with dirty writeback
449  */
450 int bdi_setup_and_register(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, char *name)
451 {
452         int err;
453 
454         bdi->name = name;
455         bdi->capabilities = 0;
456         err = bdi_init(bdi);
457         if (err)
458                 return err;
459 
460         err = bdi_register(bdi, NULL, "%.28s-%ld", name,
461                            atomic_long_inc_return(&bdi_seq));
462         if (err) {
463                 bdi_destroy(bdi);
464                 return err;
465         }
466 
467         return 0;
468 }
469 EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_setup_and_register);
470 
471 static wait_queue_head_t congestion_wqh[2] = {
472                 __WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD_INITIALIZER(congestion_wqh[0]),
473                 __WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD_INITIALIZER(congestion_wqh[1])
474         };
475 static atomic_t nr_bdi_congested[2];
476 
477 void clear_bdi_congested(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, int sync)
478 {
479         enum bdi_state bit;
480         wait_queue_head_t *wqh = &congestion_wqh[sync];
481 
482         bit = sync ? BDI_sync_congested : BDI_async_congested;
483         if (test_and_clear_bit(bit, &bdi->state))
484                 atomic_dec(&nr_bdi_congested[sync]);
485         smp_mb__after_atomic();
486         if (waitqueue_active(wqh))
487                 wake_up(wqh);
488 }
489 EXPORT_SYMBOL(clear_bdi_congested);
490 
491 void set_bdi_congested(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, int sync)
492 {
493         enum bdi_state bit;
494 
495         bit = sync ? BDI_sync_congested : BDI_async_congested;
496         if (!test_and_set_bit(bit, &bdi->state))
497                 atomic_inc(&nr_bdi_congested[sync]);
498 }
499 EXPORT_SYMBOL(set_bdi_congested);
500 
501 /**
502  * congestion_wait - wait for a backing_dev to become uncongested
503  * @sync: SYNC or ASYNC IO
504  * @timeout: timeout in jiffies
505  *
506  * Waits for up to @timeout jiffies for a backing_dev (any backing_dev) to exit
507  * write congestion.  If no backing_devs are congested then just wait for the
508  * next write to be completed.
509  */
510 long congestion_wait(int sync, long timeout)
511 {
512         long ret;
513         unsigned long start = jiffies;
514         DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
515         wait_queue_head_t *wqh = &congestion_wqh[sync];
516 
517         prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
518         ret = io_schedule_timeout(timeout);
519         finish_wait(wqh, &wait);
520 
521         trace_writeback_congestion_wait(jiffies_to_usecs(timeout),
522                                         jiffies_to_usecs(jiffies - start));
523 
524         return ret;
525 }
526 EXPORT_SYMBOL(congestion_wait);
527 
528 /**
529  * wait_iff_congested - Conditionally wait for a backing_dev to become uncongested or a zone to complete writes
530  * @zone: A zone to check if it is heavily congested
531  * @sync: SYNC or ASYNC IO
532  * @timeout: timeout in jiffies
533  *
534  * In the event of a congested backing_dev (any backing_dev) and the given
535  * @zone has experienced recent congestion, this waits for up to @timeout
536  * jiffies for either a BDI to exit congestion of the given @sync queue
537  * or a write to complete.
538  *
539  * In the absence of zone congestion, cond_resched() is called to yield
540  * the processor if necessary but otherwise does not sleep.
541  *
542  * The return value is 0 if the sleep is for the full timeout. Otherwise,
543  * it is the number of jiffies that were still remaining when the function
544  * returned. return_value == timeout implies the function did not sleep.
545  */
546 long wait_iff_congested(struct zone *zone, int sync, long timeout)
547 {
548         long ret;
549         unsigned long start = jiffies;
550         DEFINE_WAIT(wait);
551         wait_queue_head_t *wqh = &congestion_wqh[sync];
552 
553         /*
554          * If there is no congestion, or heavy congestion is not being
555          * encountered in the current zone, yield if necessary instead
556          * of sleeping on the congestion queue
557          */
558         if (atomic_read(&nr_bdi_congested[sync]) == 0 ||
559             !test_bit(ZONE_CONGESTED, &zone->flags)) {
560                 cond_resched();
561 
562                 /* In case we scheduled, work out time remaining */
563                 ret = timeout - (jiffies - start);
564                 if (ret < 0)
565                         ret = 0;
566 
567                 goto out;
568         }
569 
570         /* Sleep until uncongested or a write happens */
571         prepare_to_wait(wqh, &wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
572         ret = io_schedule_timeout(timeout);
573         finish_wait(wqh, &wait);
574 
575 out:
576         trace_writeback_wait_iff_congested(jiffies_to_usecs(timeout),
577                                         jiffies_to_usecs(jiffies - start));
578 
579         return ret;
580 }
581 EXPORT_SYMBOL(wait_iff_congested);
582 
583 int pdflush_proc_obsolete(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
584                         void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
585 {
586         char kbuf[] = "\n";
587 
588         if (*ppos || *lenp < sizeof(kbuf)) {
589                 *lenp = 0;
590                 return 0;
591         }
592 
593         if (copy_to_user(buffer, kbuf, sizeof(kbuf)))
594                 return -EFAULT;
595         printk_once(KERN_WARNING "%s exported in /proc is scheduled for removal\n",
596                         table->procname);
597 
598         *lenp = 2;
599         *ppos += *lenp;
600         return 2;
601 }
602 

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