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TOMOYO Linux Cross Reference
Linux/tools/vm/page-types.c

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  1 // SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
  2 /*
  3  * page-types: Tool for querying page flags
  4  *
  5  * Copyright (C) 2009 Intel corporation
  6  *
  7  * Authors: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
  8  */
  9 
 10 #define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
 11 #define _GNU_SOURCE
 12 #include <stdio.h>
 13 #include <stdlib.h>
 14 #include <unistd.h>
 15 #include <stdint.h>
 16 #include <stdarg.h>
 17 #include <string.h>
 18 #include <getopt.h>
 19 #include <limits.h>
 20 #include <assert.h>
 21 #include <ftw.h>
 22 #include <time.h>
 23 #include <setjmp.h>
 24 #include <signal.h>
 25 #include <sys/types.h>
 26 #include <sys/errno.h>
 27 #include <sys/fcntl.h>
 28 #include <sys/mount.h>
 29 #include <sys/statfs.h>
 30 #include <sys/mman.h>
 31 #include "../../include/uapi/linux/magic.h"
 32 #include "../../include/uapi/linux/kernel-page-flags.h"
 33 #include <api/fs/fs.h>
 34 
 35 #ifndef MAX_PATH
 36 # define MAX_PATH 256
 37 #endif
 38 
 39 #ifndef STR
 40 # define _STR(x) #x
 41 # define STR(x) _STR(x)
 42 #endif
 43 
 44 /*
 45  * pagemap kernel ABI bits
 46  */
 47 
 48 #define PM_ENTRY_BYTES          8
 49 #define PM_PFRAME_BITS          55
 50 #define PM_PFRAME_MASK          ((1LL << PM_PFRAME_BITS) - 1)
 51 #define PM_PFRAME(x)            ((x) & PM_PFRAME_MASK)
 52 #define MAX_SWAPFILES_SHIFT     5
 53 #define PM_SWAP_OFFSET(x)       (((x) & PM_PFRAME_MASK) >> MAX_SWAPFILES_SHIFT)
 54 #define PM_SOFT_DIRTY           (1ULL << 55)
 55 #define PM_MMAP_EXCLUSIVE       (1ULL << 56)
 56 #define PM_FILE                 (1ULL << 61)
 57 #define PM_SWAP                 (1ULL << 62)
 58 #define PM_PRESENT              (1ULL << 63)
 59 
 60 /*
 61  * kernel page flags
 62  */
 63 
 64 #define KPF_BYTES               8
 65 #define PROC_KPAGEFLAGS         "/proc/kpageflags"
 66 #define PROC_KPAGECOUNT         "/proc/kpagecount"
 67 #define PROC_KPAGECGROUP        "/proc/kpagecgroup"
 68 
 69 #define SYS_KERNEL_MM_PAGE_IDLE "/sys/kernel/mm/page_idle/bitmap"
 70 
 71 /* [32-] kernel hacking assistances */
 72 #define KPF_RESERVED            32
 73 #define KPF_MLOCKED             33
 74 #define KPF_MAPPEDTODISK        34
 75 #define KPF_PRIVATE             35
 76 #define KPF_PRIVATE_2           36
 77 #define KPF_OWNER_PRIVATE       37
 78 #define KPF_ARCH                38
 79 #define KPF_UNCACHED            39
 80 #define KPF_SOFTDIRTY           40
 81 #define KPF_ARCH_2              41
 82 
 83 /* [48-] take some arbitrary free slots for expanding overloaded flags
 84  * not part of kernel API
 85  */
 86 #define KPF_READAHEAD           48
 87 #define KPF_SLOB_FREE           49
 88 #define KPF_SLUB_FROZEN         50
 89 #define KPF_SLUB_DEBUG          51
 90 #define KPF_FILE                61
 91 #define KPF_SWAP                62
 92 #define KPF_MMAP_EXCLUSIVE      63
 93 
 94 #define KPF_ALL_BITS            ((uint64_t)~0ULL)
 95 #define KPF_HACKERS_BITS        (0xffffULL << 32)
 96 #define KPF_OVERLOADED_BITS     (0xffffULL << 48)
 97 #define BIT(name)               (1ULL << KPF_##name)
 98 #define BITS_COMPOUND           (BIT(COMPOUND_HEAD) | BIT(COMPOUND_TAIL))
 99 
100 static const char * const page_flag_names[] = {
101         [KPF_LOCKED]            = "L:locked",
102         [KPF_ERROR]             = "E:error",
103         [KPF_REFERENCED]        = "R:referenced",
104         [KPF_UPTODATE]          = "U:uptodate",
105         [KPF_DIRTY]             = "D:dirty",
106         [KPF_LRU]               = "l:lru",
107         [KPF_ACTIVE]            = "A:active",
108         [KPF_SLAB]              = "S:slab",
109         [KPF_WRITEBACK]         = "W:writeback",
110         [KPF_RECLAIM]           = "I:reclaim",
111         [KPF_BUDDY]             = "B:buddy",
112 
113         [KPF_MMAP]              = "M:mmap",
114         [KPF_ANON]              = "a:anonymous",
115         [KPF_SWAPCACHE]         = "s:swapcache",
116         [KPF_SWAPBACKED]        = "b:swapbacked",
117         [KPF_COMPOUND_HEAD]     = "H:compound_head",
118         [KPF_COMPOUND_TAIL]     = "T:compound_tail",
119         [KPF_HUGE]              = "G:huge",
120         [KPF_UNEVICTABLE]       = "u:unevictable",
121         [KPF_HWPOISON]          = "X:hwpoison",
122         [KPF_NOPAGE]            = "n:nopage",
123         [KPF_KSM]               = "x:ksm",
124         [KPF_THP]               = "t:thp",
125         [KPF_OFFLINE]           = "o:offline",
126         [KPF_PGTABLE]           = "g:pgtable",
127         [KPF_ZERO_PAGE]         = "z:zero_page",
128         [KPF_IDLE]              = "i:idle_page",
129 
130         [KPF_RESERVED]          = "r:reserved",
131         [KPF_MLOCKED]           = "m:mlocked",
132         [KPF_MAPPEDTODISK]      = "d:mappedtodisk",
133         [KPF_PRIVATE]           = "P:private",
134         [KPF_PRIVATE_2]         = "p:private_2",
135         [KPF_OWNER_PRIVATE]     = "O:owner_private",
136         [KPF_ARCH]              = "h:arch",
137         [KPF_UNCACHED]          = "c:uncached",
138         [KPF_SOFTDIRTY]         = "f:softdirty",
139         [KPF_ARCH_2]            = "H:arch_2",
140 
141         [KPF_READAHEAD]         = "I:readahead",
142         [KPF_SLOB_FREE]         = "P:slob_free",
143         [KPF_SLUB_FROZEN]       = "A:slub_frozen",
144         [KPF_SLUB_DEBUG]        = "E:slub_debug",
145 
146         [KPF_FILE]              = "F:file",
147         [KPF_SWAP]              = "w:swap",
148         [KPF_MMAP_EXCLUSIVE]    = "1:mmap_exclusive",
149 };
150 
151 
152 /*
153  * data structures
154  */
155 
156 static int              opt_raw;        /* for kernel developers */
157 static int              opt_list;       /* list pages (in ranges) */
158 static int              opt_mark_idle;  /* set accessed bit */
159 static int              opt_no_summary; /* don't show summary */
160 static pid_t            opt_pid;        /* process to walk */
161 const char              *opt_file;      /* file or directory path */
162 static uint64_t         opt_cgroup;     /* cgroup inode */
163 static int              opt_list_cgroup;/* list page cgroup */
164 static int              opt_list_mapcnt;/* list page map count */
165 static const char       *opt_kpageflags;/* kpageflags file to parse */
166 
167 #define MAX_ADDR_RANGES 1024
168 static int              nr_addr_ranges;
169 static unsigned long    opt_offset[MAX_ADDR_RANGES];
170 static unsigned long    opt_size[MAX_ADDR_RANGES];
171 
172 #define MAX_VMAS        10240
173 static int              nr_vmas;
174 static unsigned long    pg_start[MAX_VMAS];
175 static unsigned long    pg_end[MAX_VMAS];
176 
177 #define MAX_BIT_FILTERS 64
178 static int              nr_bit_filters;
179 static uint64_t         opt_mask[MAX_BIT_FILTERS];
180 static uint64_t         opt_bits[MAX_BIT_FILTERS];
181 
182 static int              page_size;
183 
184 static int              pagemap_fd;
185 static int              kpageflags_fd;
186 static int              kpagecount_fd = -1;
187 static int              kpagecgroup_fd = -1;
188 static int              page_idle_fd = -1;
189 
190 static int              opt_hwpoison;
191 static int              opt_unpoison;
192 
193 static const char       *hwpoison_debug_fs;
194 static int              hwpoison_inject_fd;
195 static int              hwpoison_forget_fd;
196 
197 #define HASH_SHIFT      13
198 #define HASH_SIZE       (1 << HASH_SHIFT)
199 #define HASH_MASK       (HASH_SIZE - 1)
200 #define HASH_KEY(flags) (flags & HASH_MASK)
201 
202 static unsigned long    total_pages;
203 static unsigned long    nr_pages[HASH_SIZE];
204 static uint64_t         page_flags[HASH_SIZE];
205 
206 
207 /*
208  * helper functions
209  */
210 
211 #define ARRAY_SIZE(x) (sizeof(x) / sizeof((x)[0]))
212 
213 #define min_t(type, x, y) ({                    \
214         type __min1 = (x);                      \
215         type __min2 = (y);                      \
216         __min1 < __min2 ? __min1 : __min2; })
217 
218 #define max_t(type, x, y) ({                    \
219         type __max1 = (x);                      \
220         type __max2 = (y);                      \
221         __max1 > __max2 ? __max1 : __max2; })
222 
223 static unsigned long pages2mb(unsigned long pages)
224 {
225         return (pages * page_size) >> 20;
226 }
227 
228 static void fatal(const char *x, ...)
229 {
230         va_list ap;
231 
232         va_start(ap, x);
233         vfprintf(stderr, x, ap);
234         va_end(ap);
235         exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
236 }
237 
238 static int checked_open(const char *pathname, int flags)
239 {
240         int fd = open(pathname, flags);
241 
242         if (fd < 0) {
243                 perror(pathname);
244                 exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
245         }
246 
247         return fd;
248 }
249 
250 /*
251  * pagemap/kpageflags routines
252  */
253 
254 static unsigned long do_u64_read(int fd, const char *name,
255                                  uint64_t *buf,
256                                  unsigned long index,
257                                  unsigned long count)
258 {
259         long bytes;
260 
261         if (index > ULONG_MAX / 8)
262                 fatal("index overflow: %lu\n", index);
263 
264         bytes = pread(fd, buf, count * 8, (off_t)index * 8);
265         if (bytes < 0) {
266                 perror(name);
267                 exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
268         }
269         if (bytes % 8)
270                 fatal("partial read: %lu bytes\n", bytes);
271 
272         return bytes / 8;
273 }
274 
275 static unsigned long kpageflags_read(uint64_t *buf,
276                                      unsigned long index,
277                                      unsigned long pages)
278 {
279         return do_u64_read(kpageflags_fd, opt_kpageflags, buf, index, pages);
280 }
281 
282 static unsigned long kpagecgroup_read(uint64_t *buf,
283                                       unsigned long index,
284                                       unsigned long pages)
285 {
286         if (kpagecgroup_fd < 0)
287                 return pages;
288 
289         return do_u64_read(kpagecgroup_fd, opt_kpageflags, buf, index, pages);
290 }
291 
292 static unsigned long kpagecount_read(uint64_t *buf,
293                                      unsigned long index,
294                                      unsigned long pages)
295 {
296         return kpagecount_fd < 0 ? pages :
297                 do_u64_read(kpagecount_fd, PROC_KPAGECOUNT,
298                             buf, index, pages);
299 }
300 
301 static unsigned long pagemap_read(uint64_t *buf,
302                                   unsigned long index,
303                                   unsigned long pages)
304 {
305         return do_u64_read(pagemap_fd, "/proc/pid/pagemap", buf, index, pages);
306 }
307 
308 static unsigned long pagemap_pfn(uint64_t val)
309 {
310         unsigned long pfn;
311 
312         if (val & PM_PRESENT)
313                 pfn = PM_PFRAME(val);
314         else
315                 pfn = 0;
316 
317         return pfn;
318 }
319 
320 static unsigned long pagemap_swap_offset(uint64_t val)
321 {
322         return val & PM_SWAP ? PM_SWAP_OFFSET(val) : 0;
323 }
324 
325 /*
326  * page flag names
327  */
328 
329 static char *page_flag_name(uint64_t flags)
330 {
331         static char buf[65];
332         int present;
333         size_t i, j;
334 
335         for (i = 0, j = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
336                 present = (flags >> i) & 1;
337                 if (!page_flag_names[i]) {
338                         if (present)
339                                 fatal("unknown flag bit %d\n", i);
340                         continue;
341                 }
342                 buf[j++] = present ? page_flag_names[i][0] : '_';
343         }
344 
345         return buf;
346 }
347 
348 static char *page_flag_longname(uint64_t flags)
349 {
350         static char buf[1024];
351         size_t i, n;
352 
353         for (i = 0, n = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
354                 if (!page_flag_names[i])
355                         continue;
356                 if ((flags >> i) & 1)
357                         n += snprintf(buf + n, sizeof(buf) - n, "%s,",
358                                         page_flag_names[i] + 2);
359         }
360         if (n)
361                 n--;
362         buf[n] = '\0';
363 
364         return buf;
365 }
366 
367 
368 /*
369  * page list and summary
370  */
371 
372 static void show_page_range(unsigned long voffset, unsigned long offset,
373                             unsigned long size, uint64_t flags,
374                             uint64_t cgroup, uint64_t mapcnt)
375 {
376         static uint64_t      flags0;
377         static uint64_t      cgroup0;
378         static uint64_t      mapcnt0;
379         static unsigned long voff;
380         static unsigned long index;
381         static unsigned long count;
382 
383         if (flags == flags0 && cgroup == cgroup0 && mapcnt == mapcnt0 &&
384             offset == index + count && size && voffset == voff + count) {
385                 count += size;
386                 return;
387         }
388 
389         if (count) {
390                 if (opt_pid)
391                         printf("%lx\t", voff);
392                 if (opt_file)
393                         printf("%lu\t", voff);
394                 if (opt_list_cgroup)
395                         printf("@%llu\t", (unsigned long long)cgroup0);
396                 if (opt_list_mapcnt)
397                         printf("%lu\t", mapcnt0);
398                 printf("%lx\t%lx\t%s\n",
399                                 index, count, page_flag_name(flags0));
400         }
401 
402         flags0 = flags;
403         cgroup0 = cgroup;
404         mapcnt0 = mapcnt;
405         index  = offset;
406         voff   = voffset;
407         count  = size;
408 }
409 
410 static void flush_page_range(void)
411 {
412         show_page_range(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);
413 }
414 
415 static void show_page(unsigned long voffset, unsigned long offset,
416                       uint64_t flags, uint64_t cgroup, uint64_t mapcnt)
417 {
418         if (opt_pid)
419                 printf("%lx\t", voffset);
420         if (opt_file)
421                 printf("%lu\t", voffset);
422         if (opt_list_cgroup)
423                 printf("@%llu\t", (unsigned long long)cgroup);
424         if (opt_list_mapcnt)
425                 printf("%lu\t", mapcnt);
426 
427         printf("%lx\t%s\n", offset, page_flag_name(flags));
428 }
429 
430 static void show_summary(void)
431 {
432         size_t i;
433 
434         printf("             flags\tpage-count       MB"
435                 "  symbolic-flags\t\t\tlong-symbolic-flags\n");
436 
437         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(nr_pages); i++) {
438                 if (nr_pages[i])
439                         printf("0x%016llx\t%10lu %8lu  %s\t%s\n",
440                                 (unsigned long long)page_flags[i],
441                                 nr_pages[i],
442                                 pages2mb(nr_pages[i]),
443                                 page_flag_name(page_flags[i]),
444                                 page_flag_longname(page_flags[i]));
445         }
446 
447         printf("             total\t%10lu %8lu\n",
448                         total_pages, pages2mb(total_pages));
449 }
450 
451 
452 /*
453  * page flag filters
454  */
455 
456 static int bit_mask_ok(uint64_t flags)
457 {
458         int i;
459 
460         for (i = 0; i < nr_bit_filters; i++) {
461                 if (opt_bits[i] == KPF_ALL_BITS) {
462                         if ((flags & opt_mask[i]) == 0)
463                                 return 0;
464                 } else {
465                         if ((flags & opt_mask[i]) != opt_bits[i])
466                                 return 0;
467                 }
468         }
469 
470         return 1;
471 }
472 
473 static uint64_t expand_overloaded_flags(uint64_t flags, uint64_t pme)
474 {
475         /* SLOB/SLUB overload several page flags */
476         if (flags & BIT(SLAB)) {
477                 if (flags & BIT(PRIVATE))
478                         flags ^= BIT(PRIVATE) | BIT(SLOB_FREE);
479                 if (flags & BIT(ACTIVE))
480                         flags ^= BIT(ACTIVE) | BIT(SLUB_FROZEN);
481                 if (flags & BIT(ERROR))
482                         flags ^= BIT(ERROR) | BIT(SLUB_DEBUG);
483         }
484 
485         /* PG_reclaim is overloaded as PG_readahead in the read path */
486         if ((flags & (BIT(RECLAIM) | BIT(WRITEBACK))) == BIT(RECLAIM))
487                 flags ^= BIT(RECLAIM) | BIT(READAHEAD);
488 
489         if (pme & PM_SOFT_DIRTY)
490                 flags |= BIT(SOFTDIRTY);
491         if (pme & PM_FILE)
492                 flags |= BIT(FILE);
493         if (pme & PM_SWAP)
494                 flags |= BIT(SWAP);
495         if (pme & PM_MMAP_EXCLUSIVE)
496                 flags |= BIT(MMAP_EXCLUSIVE);
497 
498         return flags;
499 }
500 
501 static uint64_t well_known_flags(uint64_t flags)
502 {
503         /* hide flags intended only for kernel hacker */
504         flags &= ~KPF_HACKERS_BITS;
505 
506         /* hide non-hugeTLB compound pages */
507         if ((flags & BITS_COMPOUND) && !(flags & BIT(HUGE)))
508                 flags &= ~BITS_COMPOUND;
509 
510         return flags;
511 }
512 
513 static uint64_t kpageflags_flags(uint64_t flags, uint64_t pme)
514 {
515         if (opt_raw)
516                 flags = expand_overloaded_flags(flags, pme);
517         else
518                 flags = well_known_flags(flags);
519 
520         return flags;
521 }
522 
523 /*
524  * page actions
525  */
526 
527 static void prepare_hwpoison_fd(void)
528 {
529         char buf[MAX_PATH + 1];
530 
531         hwpoison_debug_fs = debugfs__mount();
532         if (!hwpoison_debug_fs) {
533                 perror("mount debugfs");
534                 exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
535         }
536 
537         if (opt_hwpoison && !hwpoison_inject_fd) {
538                 snprintf(buf, MAX_PATH, "%s/hwpoison/corrupt-pfn",
539                         hwpoison_debug_fs);
540                 hwpoison_inject_fd = checked_open(buf, O_WRONLY);
541         }
542 
543         if (opt_unpoison && !hwpoison_forget_fd) {
544                 snprintf(buf, MAX_PATH, "%s/hwpoison/unpoison-pfn",
545                         hwpoison_debug_fs);
546                 hwpoison_forget_fd = checked_open(buf, O_WRONLY);
547         }
548 }
549 
550 static int hwpoison_page(unsigned long offset)
551 {
552         char buf[100];
553         int len;
554 
555         len = sprintf(buf, "0x%lx\n", offset);
556         len = write(hwpoison_inject_fd, buf, len);
557         if (len < 0) {
558                 perror("hwpoison inject");
559                 return len;
560         }
561         return 0;
562 }
563 
564 static int unpoison_page(unsigned long offset)
565 {
566         char buf[100];
567         int len;
568 
569         len = sprintf(buf, "0x%lx\n", offset);
570         len = write(hwpoison_forget_fd, buf, len);
571         if (len < 0) {
572                 perror("hwpoison forget");
573                 return len;
574         }
575         return 0;
576 }
577 
578 static int mark_page_idle(unsigned long offset)
579 {
580         static unsigned long off;
581         static uint64_t buf;
582         int len;
583 
584         if ((offset / 64 == off / 64) || buf == 0) {
585                 buf |= 1UL << (offset % 64);
586                 off = offset;
587                 return 0;
588         }
589 
590         len = pwrite(page_idle_fd, &buf, 8, 8 * (off / 64));
591         if (len < 0) {
592                 perror("mark page idle");
593                 return len;
594         }
595 
596         buf = 1UL << (offset % 64);
597         off = offset;
598 
599         return 0;
600 }
601 
602 /*
603  * page frame walker
604  */
605 
606 static size_t hash_slot(uint64_t flags)
607 {
608         size_t k = HASH_KEY(flags);
609         size_t i;
610 
611         /* Explicitly reserve slot 0 for flags 0: the following logic
612          * cannot distinguish an unoccupied slot from slot (flags==0).
613          */
614         if (flags == 0)
615                 return 0;
616 
617         /* search through the remaining (HASH_SIZE-1) slots */
618         for (i = 1; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flags); i++, k++) {
619                 if (!k || k >= ARRAY_SIZE(page_flags))
620                         k = 1;
621                 if (page_flags[k] == 0) {
622                         page_flags[k] = flags;
623                         return k;
624                 }
625                 if (page_flags[k] == flags)
626                         return k;
627         }
628 
629         fatal("hash table full: bump up HASH_SHIFT?\n");
630         exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
631 }
632 
633 static void add_page(unsigned long voffset, unsigned long offset,
634                      uint64_t flags, uint64_t cgroup, uint64_t mapcnt,
635                      uint64_t pme)
636 {
637         flags = kpageflags_flags(flags, pme);
638 
639         if (!bit_mask_ok(flags))
640                 return;
641 
642         if (opt_cgroup && cgroup != (uint64_t)opt_cgroup)
643                 return;
644 
645         if (opt_hwpoison)
646                 hwpoison_page(offset);
647         if (opt_unpoison)
648                 unpoison_page(offset);
649 
650         if (opt_mark_idle)
651                 mark_page_idle(offset);
652 
653         if (opt_list == 1)
654                 show_page_range(voffset, offset, 1, flags, cgroup, mapcnt);
655         else if (opt_list == 2)
656                 show_page(voffset, offset, flags, cgroup, mapcnt);
657 
658         nr_pages[hash_slot(flags)]++;
659         total_pages++;
660 }
661 
662 #define KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH        (64 << 10)      /* 64k pages */
663 static void walk_pfn(unsigned long voffset,
664                      unsigned long index,
665                      unsigned long count,
666                      uint64_t pme)
667 {
668         uint64_t buf[KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH];
669         uint64_t cgi[KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH];
670         uint64_t cnt[KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH];
671         unsigned long batch;
672         unsigned long pages;
673         unsigned long i;
674 
675         /*
676          * kpagecgroup_read() reads only if kpagecgroup were opened, but
677          * /proc/kpagecgroup might even not exist, so it's better to fill
678          * them with zeros here.
679          */
680         if (count == 1)
681                 cgi[0] = 0;
682         else
683                 memset(cgi, 0, sizeof cgi);
684 
685         while (count) {
686                 batch = min_t(unsigned long, count, KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH);
687                 pages = kpageflags_read(buf, index, batch);
688                 if (pages == 0)
689                         break;
690 
691                 if (kpagecgroup_read(cgi, index, pages) != pages)
692                         fatal("kpagecgroup returned fewer pages than expected");
693 
694                 if (kpagecount_read(cnt, index, pages) != pages)
695                         fatal("kpagecount returned fewer pages than expected");
696 
697                 for (i = 0; i < pages; i++)
698                         add_page(voffset + i, index + i,
699                                  buf[i], cgi[i], cnt[i], pme);
700 
701                 index += pages;
702                 count -= pages;
703         }
704 }
705 
706 static void walk_swap(unsigned long voffset, uint64_t pme)
707 {
708         uint64_t flags = kpageflags_flags(0, pme);
709 
710         if (!bit_mask_ok(flags))
711                 return;
712 
713         if (opt_cgroup)
714                 return;
715 
716         if (opt_list == 1)
717                 show_page_range(voffset, pagemap_swap_offset(pme),
718                                 1, flags, 0, 0);
719         else if (opt_list == 2)
720                 show_page(voffset, pagemap_swap_offset(pme), flags, 0, 0);
721 
722         nr_pages[hash_slot(flags)]++;
723         total_pages++;
724 }
725 
726 #define PAGEMAP_BATCH   (64 << 10)
727 static void walk_vma(unsigned long index, unsigned long count)
728 {
729         uint64_t buf[PAGEMAP_BATCH];
730         unsigned long batch;
731         unsigned long pages;
732         unsigned long pfn;
733         unsigned long i;
734 
735         while (count) {
736                 batch = min_t(unsigned long, count, PAGEMAP_BATCH);
737                 pages = pagemap_read(buf, index, batch);
738                 if (pages == 0)
739                         break;
740 
741                 for (i = 0; i < pages; i++) {
742                         pfn = pagemap_pfn(buf[i]);
743                         if (pfn)
744                                 walk_pfn(index + i, pfn, 1, buf[i]);
745                         if (buf[i] & PM_SWAP)
746                                 walk_swap(index + i, buf[i]);
747                 }
748 
749                 index += pages;
750                 count -= pages;
751         }
752 }
753 
754 static void walk_task(unsigned long index, unsigned long count)
755 {
756         const unsigned long end = index + count;
757         unsigned long start;
758         int i = 0;
759 
760         while (index < end) {
761 
762                 while (pg_end[i] <= index)
763                         if (++i >= nr_vmas)
764                                 return;
765                 if (pg_start[i] >= end)
766                         return;
767 
768                 start = max_t(unsigned long, pg_start[i], index);
769                 index = min_t(unsigned long, pg_end[i], end);
770 
771                 assert(start < index);
772                 walk_vma(start, index - start);
773         }
774 }
775 
776 static void add_addr_range(unsigned long offset, unsigned long size)
777 {
778         if (nr_addr_ranges >= MAX_ADDR_RANGES)
779                 fatal("too many addr ranges\n");
780 
781         opt_offset[nr_addr_ranges] = offset;
782         opt_size[nr_addr_ranges] = min_t(unsigned long, size, ULONG_MAX-offset);
783         nr_addr_ranges++;
784 }
785 
786 static void walk_addr_ranges(void)
787 {
788         int i;
789 
790         kpageflags_fd = checked_open(opt_kpageflags, O_RDONLY);
791 
792         if (!nr_addr_ranges)
793                 add_addr_range(0, ULONG_MAX);
794 
795         for (i = 0; i < nr_addr_ranges; i++)
796                 if (!opt_pid)
797                         walk_pfn(opt_offset[i], opt_offset[i], opt_size[i], 0);
798                 else
799                         walk_task(opt_offset[i], opt_size[i]);
800 
801         if (opt_mark_idle)
802                 mark_page_idle(0);
803 
804         close(kpageflags_fd);
805 }
806 
807 
808 /*
809  * user interface
810  */
811 
812 static const char *page_flag_type(uint64_t flag)
813 {
814         if (flag & KPF_HACKERS_BITS)
815                 return "(r)";
816         if (flag & KPF_OVERLOADED_BITS)
817                 return "(o)";
818         return "   ";
819 }
820 
821 static void usage(void)
822 {
823         size_t i, j;
824 
825         printf(
826 "page-types [options]\n"
827 "            -r|--raw                   Raw mode, for kernel developers\n"
828 "            -d|--describe flags        Describe flags\n"
829 "            -a|--addr    addr-spec     Walk a range of pages\n"
830 "            -b|--bits    bits-spec     Walk pages with specified bits\n"
831 "            -c|--cgroup  path|@inode   Walk pages within memory cgroup\n"
832 "            -p|--pid     pid           Walk process address space\n"
833 "            -f|--file    filename      Walk file address space\n"
834 "            -i|--mark-idle             Mark pages idle\n"
835 "            -l|--list                  Show page details in ranges\n"
836 "            -L|--list-each             Show page details one by one\n"
837 "            -C|--list-cgroup           Show cgroup inode for pages\n"
838 "            -M|--list-mapcnt           Show page map count\n"
839 "            -N|--no-summary            Don't show summary info\n"
840 "            -X|--hwpoison              hwpoison pages\n"
841 "            -x|--unpoison              unpoison pages\n"
842 "            -F|--kpageflags filename   kpageflags file to parse\n"
843 "            -h|--help                  Show this usage message\n"
844 "flags:\n"
845 "            0x10                       bitfield format, e.g.\n"
846 "            anon                       bit-name, e.g.\n"
847 "            0x10,anon                  comma-separated list, e.g.\n"
848 "addr-spec:\n"
849 "            N                          one page at offset N (unit: pages)\n"
850 "            N+M                        pages range from N to N+M-1\n"
851 "            N,M                        pages range from N to M-1\n"
852 "            N,                         pages range from N to end\n"
853 "            ,M                         pages range from 0 to M-1\n"
854 "bits-spec:\n"
855 "            bit1,bit2                  (flags & (bit1|bit2)) != 0\n"
856 "            bit1,bit2=bit1             (flags & (bit1|bit2)) == bit1\n"
857 "            bit1,~bit2                 (flags & (bit1|bit2)) == bit1\n"
858 "            =bit1,bit2                 flags == (bit1|bit2)\n"
859 "bit-names:\n"
860         );
861 
862         for (i = 0, j = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
863                 if (!page_flag_names[i])
864                         continue;
865                 printf("%16s%s", page_flag_names[i] + 2,
866                                  page_flag_type(1ULL << i));
867                 if (++j > 3) {
868                         j = 0;
869                         putchar('\n');
870                 }
871         }
872         printf("\n                                   "
873                 "(r) raw mode bits  (o) overloaded bits\n");
874 }
875 
876 static unsigned long long parse_number(const char *str)
877 {
878         unsigned long long n;
879 
880         n = strtoll(str, NULL, 0);
881 
882         if (n == 0 && str[0] != '')
883                 fatal("invalid name or number: %s\n", str);
884 
885         return n;
886 }
887 
888 static void parse_pid(const char *str)
889 {
890         FILE *file;
891         char buf[5000];
892 
893         opt_pid = parse_number(str);
894 
895         sprintf(buf, "/proc/%d/pagemap", opt_pid);
896         pagemap_fd = checked_open(buf, O_RDONLY);
897 
898         sprintf(buf, "/proc/%d/maps", opt_pid);
899         file = fopen(buf, "r");
900         if (!file) {
901                 perror(buf);
902                 exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
903         }
904 
905         while (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file) != NULL) {
906                 unsigned long vm_start;
907                 unsigned long vm_end;
908                 unsigned long long pgoff;
909                 int major, minor;
910                 char r, w, x, s;
911                 unsigned long ino;
912                 int n;
913 
914                 n = sscanf(buf, "%lx-%lx %c%c%c%c %llx %x:%x %lu",
915                            &vm_start,
916                            &vm_end,
917                            &r, &w, &x, &s,
918                            &pgoff,
919                            &major, &minor,
920                            &ino);
921                 if (n < 10) {
922                         fprintf(stderr, "unexpected line: %s\n", buf);
923                         continue;
924                 }
925                 pg_start[nr_vmas] = vm_start / page_size;
926                 pg_end[nr_vmas] = vm_end / page_size;
927                 if (++nr_vmas >= MAX_VMAS) {
928                         fprintf(stderr, "too many VMAs\n");
929                         break;
930                 }
931         }
932         fclose(file);
933 }
934 
935 static void show_file(const char *name, const struct stat *st)
936 {
937         unsigned long long size = st->st_size;
938         char atime[64], mtime[64];
939         long now = time(NULL);
940 
941         printf("%s\tInode: %u\tSize: %llu (%llu pages)\n",
942                         name, (unsigned)st->st_ino,
943                         size, (size + page_size - 1) / page_size);
944 
945         strftime(atime, sizeof(atime), "%c", localtime(&st->st_atime));
946         strftime(mtime, sizeof(mtime), "%c", localtime(&st->st_mtime));
947 
948         printf("Modify: %s (%ld seconds ago)\nAccess: %s (%ld seconds ago)\n",
949                         mtime, now - st->st_mtime,
950                         atime, now - st->st_atime);
951 }
952 
953 static sigjmp_buf sigbus_jmp;
954 
955 static void * volatile sigbus_addr;
956 
957 static void sigbus_handler(int sig, siginfo_t *info, void *ucontex)
958 {
959         (void)sig;
960         (void)ucontex;
961         sigbus_addr = info ? info->si_addr : NULL;
962         siglongjmp(sigbus_jmp, 1);
963 }
964 
965 static struct sigaction sigbus_action = {
966         .sa_sigaction = sigbus_handler,
967         .sa_flags = SA_SIGINFO,
968 };
969 
970 static void walk_file(const char *name, const struct stat *st)
971 {
972         uint8_t vec[PAGEMAP_BATCH];
973         uint64_t buf[PAGEMAP_BATCH], flags;
974         uint64_t cgroup = 0;
975         uint64_t mapcnt = 0;
976         unsigned long nr_pages, pfn, i;
977         off_t off, end = st->st_size;
978         int fd;
979         ssize_t len;
980         void *ptr;
981         int first = 1;
982 
983         fd = checked_open(name, O_RDONLY|O_NOATIME|O_NOFOLLOW);
984 
985         for (off = 0; off < end; off += len) {
986                 nr_pages = (end - off + page_size - 1) / page_size;
987                 if (nr_pages > PAGEMAP_BATCH)
988                         nr_pages = PAGEMAP_BATCH;
989                 len = nr_pages * page_size;
990 
991                 ptr = mmap(NULL, len, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED, fd, off);
992                 if (ptr == MAP_FAILED)
993                         fatal("mmap failed: %s", name);
994 
995                 /* determine cached pages */
996                 if (mincore(ptr, len, vec))
997                         fatal("mincore failed: %s", name);
998 
999                 /* turn off readahead */
1000                 if (madvise(ptr, len, MADV_RANDOM))
1001                         fatal("madvice failed: %s", name);
1002 
1003                 if (sigsetjmp(sigbus_jmp, 1)) {
1004                         end = off + sigbus_addr ? sigbus_addr - ptr : 0;
1005                         fprintf(stderr, "got sigbus at offset %lld: %s\n",
1006                                         (long long)end, name);
1007                         goto got_sigbus;
1008                 }
1009 
1010                 /* populate ptes */
1011                 for (i = 0; i < nr_pages ; i++) {
1012                         if (vec[i] & 1)
1013                                 (void)*(volatile int *)(ptr + i * page_size);
1014                 }
1015 got_sigbus:
1016 
1017                 /* turn off harvesting reference bits */
1018                 if (madvise(ptr, len, MADV_SEQUENTIAL))
1019                         fatal("madvice failed: %s", name);
1020 
1021                 if (pagemap_read(buf, (unsigned long)ptr / page_size,
1022                                         nr_pages) != nr_pages)
1023                         fatal("cannot read pagemap");
1024 
1025                 munmap(ptr, len);
1026 
1027                 for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
1028                         pfn = pagemap_pfn(buf[i]);
1029                         if (!pfn)
1030                                 continue;
1031                         if (!kpageflags_read(&flags, pfn, 1))
1032                                 continue;
1033                         if (!kpagecgroup_read(&cgroup, pfn, 1))
1034                                 fatal("kpagecgroup_read failed");
1035                         if (!kpagecount_read(&mapcnt, pfn, 1))
1036                                 fatal("kpagecount_read failed");
1037                         if (first && opt_list) {
1038                                 first = 0;
1039                                 flush_page_range();
1040                                 show_file(name, st);
1041                         }
1042                         add_page(off / page_size + i, pfn,
1043                                  flags, cgroup, mapcnt, buf[i]);
1044                 }
1045         }
1046 
1047         close(fd);
1048 }
1049 
1050 int walk_tree(const char *name, const struct stat *st, int type, struct FTW *f)
1051 {
1052         (void)f;
1053         switch (type) {
1054         case FTW_F:
1055                 if (S_ISREG(st->st_mode))
1056                         walk_file(name, st);
1057                 break;
1058         case FTW_DNR:
1059                 fprintf(stderr, "cannot read dir: %s\n", name);
1060                 break;
1061         }
1062         return 0;
1063 }
1064 
1065 static void walk_page_cache(void)
1066 {
1067         struct stat st;
1068 
1069         kpageflags_fd = checked_open(opt_kpageflags, O_RDONLY);
1070         pagemap_fd = checked_open("/proc/self/pagemap", O_RDONLY);
1071         sigaction(SIGBUS, &sigbus_action, NULL);
1072 
1073         if (stat(opt_file, &st))
1074                 fatal("stat failed: %s\n", opt_file);
1075 
1076         if (S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) {
1077                 walk_file(opt_file, &st);
1078         } else if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) {
1079                 /* do not follow symlinks and mountpoints */
1080                 if (nftw(opt_file, walk_tree, 64, FTW_MOUNT | FTW_PHYS) < 0)
1081                         fatal("nftw failed: %s\n", opt_file);
1082         } else
1083                 fatal("unhandled file type: %s\n", opt_file);
1084 
1085         close(kpageflags_fd);
1086         close(pagemap_fd);
1087         signal(SIGBUS, SIG_DFL);
1088 }
1089 
1090 static void parse_file(const char *name)
1091 {
1092         opt_file = name;
1093 }
1094 
1095 static void parse_cgroup(const char *path)
1096 {
1097         if (path[0] == '@') {
1098                 opt_cgroup = parse_number(path + 1);
1099                 return;
1100         }
1101 
1102         struct stat st;
1103 
1104         if (stat(path, &st))
1105                 fatal("stat failed: %s: %m\n", path);
1106 
1107         if (!S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
1108                 fatal("cgroup supposed to be a directory: %s\n", path);
1109 
1110         opt_cgroup = st.st_ino;
1111 }
1112 
1113 static void parse_addr_range(const char *optarg)
1114 {
1115         unsigned long offset;
1116         unsigned long size;
1117         char *p;
1118 
1119         p = strchr(optarg, ',');
1120         if (!p)
1121                 p = strchr(optarg, '+');
1122 
1123         if (p == optarg) {
1124                 offset = 0;
1125                 size   = parse_number(p + 1);
1126         } else if (p) {
1127                 offset = parse_number(optarg);
1128                 if (p[1] == '\0')
1129                         size = ULONG_MAX;
1130                 else {
1131                         size = parse_number(p + 1);
1132                         if (*p == ',') {
1133                                 if (size < offset)
1134                                         fatal("invalid range: %lu,%lu\n",
1135                                                         offset, size);
1136                                 size -= offset;
1137                         }
1138                 }
1139         } else {
1140                 offset = parse_number(optarg);
1141                 size   = 1;
1142         }
1143 
1144         add_addr_range(offset, size);
1145 }
1146 
1147 static void add_bits_filter(uint64_t mask, uint64_t bits)
1148 {
1149         if (nr_bit_filters >= MAX_BIT_FILTERS)
1150                 fatal("too much bit filters\n");
1151 
1152         opt_mask[nr_bit_filters] = mask;
1153         opt_bits[nr_bit_filters] = bits;
1154         nr_bit_filters++;
1155 }
1156 
1157 static uint64_t parse_flag_name(const char *str, int len)
1158 {
1159         size_t i;
1160 
1161         if (!*str || !len)
1162                 return 0;
1163 
1164         if (len <= 8 && !strncmp(str, "compound", len))
1165                 return BITS_COMPOUND;
1166 
1167         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
1168                 if (!page_flag_names[i])
1169                         continue;
1170                 if (!strncmp(str, page_flag_names[i] + 2, len))
1171                         return 1ULL << i;
1172         }
1173 
1174         return parse_number(str);
1175 }
1176 
1177 static uint64_t parse_flag_names(const char *str, int all)
1178 {
1179         const char *p    = str;
1180         uint64_t   flags = 0;
1181 
1182         while (1) {
1183                 if (*p == ',' || *p == '=' || *p == '\0') {
1184                         if ((*str != '~') || (*str == '~' && all && *++str))
1185                                 flags |= parse_flag_name(str, p - str);
1186                         if (*p != ',')
1187                                 break;
1188                         str = p + 1;
1189                 }
1190                 p++;
1191         }
1192 
1193         return flags;
1194 }
1195 
1196 static void parse_bits_mask(const char *optarg)
1197 {
1198         uint64_t mask;
1199         uint64_t bits;
1200         const char *p;
1201 
1202         p = strchr(optarg, '=');
1203         if (p == optarg) {
1204                 mask = KPF_ALL_BITS;
1205                 bits = parse_flag_names(p + 1, 0);
1206         } else if (p) {
1207                 mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
1208                 bits = parse_flag_names(p + 1, 0);
1209         } else if (strchr(optarg, '~')) {
1210                 mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 1);
1211                 bits = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
1212         } else {
1213                 mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
1214                 bits = KPF_ALL_BITS;
1215         }
1216 
1217         add_bits_filter(mask, bits);
1218 }
1219 
1220 static void parse_kpageflags(const char *name)
1221 {
1222         opt_kpageflags = name;
1223 }
1224 
1225 static void describe_flags(const char *optarg)
1226 {
1227         uint64_t flags = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
1228 
1229         printf("0x%016llx\t%s\t%s\n",
1230                 (unsigned long long)flags,
1231                 page_flag_name(flags),
1232                 page_flag_longname(flags));
1233 }
1234 
1235 static const struct option opts[] = {
1236         { "raw"       , 0, NULL, 'r' },
1237         { "pid"       , 1, NULL, 'p' },
1238         { "file"      , 1, NULL, 'f' },
1239         { "addr"      , 1, NULL, 'a' },
1240         { "bits"      , 1, NULL, 'b' },
1241         { "cgroup"    , 1, NULL, 'c' },
1242         { "describe"  , 1, NULL, 'd' },
1243         { "mark-idle" , 0, NULL, 'i' },
1244         { "list"      , 0, NULL, 'l' },
1245         { "list-each" , 0, NULL, 'L' },
1246         { "list-cgroup", 0, NULL, 'C' },
1247         { "list-mapcnt", 0, NULL, 'M' },
1248         { "no-summary", 0, NULL, 'N' },
1249         { "hwpoison"  , 0, NULL, 'X' },
1250         { "unpoison"  , 0, NULL, 'x' },
1251         { "kpageflags", 0, NULL, 'F' },
1252         { "help"      , 0, NULL, 'h' },
1253         { NULL        , 0, NULL, 0 }
1254 };
1255 
1256 int main(int argc, char *argv[])
1257 {
1258         int c;
1259 
1260         page_size = getpagesize();
1261 
1262         while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv,
1263                                 "rp:f:a:b:d:c:CilLMNXxF:h",
1264                                 opts, NULL)) != -1) {
1265                 switch (c) {
1266                 case 'r':
1267                         opt_raw = 1;
1268                         break;
1269                 case 'p':
1270                         parse_pid(optarg);
1271                         break;
1272                 case 'f':
1273                         parse_file(optarg);
1274                         break;
1275                 case 'a':
1276                         parse_addr_range(optarg);
1277                         break;
1278                 case 'b':
1279                         parse_bits_mask(optarg);
1280                         break;
1281                 case 'c':
1282                         parse_cgroup(optarg);
1283                         break;
1284                 case 'C':
1285                         opt_list_cgroup = 1;
1286                         break;
1287                 case 'd':
1288                         describe_flags(optarg);
1289                         exit(0);
1290                 case 'i':
1291                         opt_mark_idle = 1;
1292                         break;
1293                 case 'l':
1294                         opt_list = 1;
1295                         break;
1296                 case 'L':
1297                         opt_list = 2;
1298                         break;
1299                 case 'M':
1300                         opt_list_mapcnt = 1;
1301                         break;
1302                 case 'N':
1303                         opt_no_summary = 1;
1304                         break;
1305                 case 'X':
1306                         opt_hwpoison = 1;
1307                         prepare_hwpoison_fd();
1308                         break;
1309                 case 'x':
1310                         opt_unpoison = 1;
1311                         prepare_hwpoison_fd();
1312                         break;
1313                 case 'F':
1314                         parse_kpageflags(optarg);
1315                         break;
1316                 case 'h':
1317                         usage();
1318                         exit(0);
1319                 default:
1320                         usage();
1321                         exit(1);
1322                 }
1323         }
1324 
1325         if (!opt_kpageflags)
1326                 opt_kpageflags = PROC_KPAGEFLAGS;
1327 
1328         if (opt_cgroup || opt_list_cgroup)
1329                 kpagecgroup_fd = checked_open(PROC_KPAGECGROUP, O_RDONLY);
1330 
1331         if (opt_list && opt_list_mapcnt)
1332                 kpagecount_fd = checked_open(PROC_KPAGECOUNT, O_RDONLY);
1333 
1334         if (opt_mark_idle && opt_file)
1335                 page_idle_fd = checked_open(SYS_KERNEL_MM_PAGE_IDLE, O_RDWR);
1336 
1337         if (opt_list && opt_pid)
1338                 printf("voffset\t");
1339         if (opt_list && opt_file)
1340                 printf("foffset\t");
1341         if (opt_list && opt_list_cgroup)
1342                 printf("cgroup\t");
1343         if (opt_list && opt_list_mapcnt)
1344                 printf("map-cnt\t");
1345 
1346         if (opt_list == 1)
1347                 printf("offset\tlen\tflags\n");
1348         if (opt_list == 2)
1349                 printf("offset\tflags\n");
1350 
1351         if (opt_file)
1352                 walk_page_cache();
1353         else
1354                 walk_addr_ranges();
1355 
1356         if (opt_list == 1)
1357                 flush_page_range();
1358 
1359         if (opt_no_summary)
1360                 return 0;
1361 
1362         if (opt_list)
1363                 printf("\n\n");
1364 
1365         show_summary();
1366 
1367         if (opt_list_mapcnt)
1368                 close(kpagecount_fd);
1369 
1370         if (page_idle_fd >= 0)
1371                 close(page_idle_fd);
1372 
1373         return 0;
1374 }
1375 

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