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TOMOYO Linux Cross Reference
Linux/tools/vm/page-types.c

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  1 // SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
  2 /*
  3  * page-types: Tool for querying page flags
  4  *
  5  * Copyright (C) 2009 Intel corporation
  6  *
  7  * Authors: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
  8  */
  9 
 10 #define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
 11 #define _GNU_SOURCE
 12 #include <stdio.h>
 13 #include <stdlib.h>
 14 #include <unistd.h>
 15 #include <stdint.h>
 16 #include <stdarg.h>
 17 #include <string.h>
 18 #include <getopt.h>
 19 #include <limits.h>
 20 #include <assert.h>
 21 #include <ftw.h>
 22 #include <time.h>
 23 #include <setjmp.h>
 24 #include <signal.h>
 25 #include <sys/types.h>
 26 #include <sys/errno.h>
 27 #include <sys/fcntl.h>
 28 #include <sys/mount.h>
 29 #include <sys/statfs.h>
 30 #include <sys/mman.h>
 31 #include "../../include/uapi/linux/magic.h"
 32 #include "../../include/uapi/linux/kernel-page-flags.h"
 33 #include <api/fs/fs.h>
 34 
 35 #ifndef MAX_PATH
 36 # define MAX_PATH 256
 37 #endif
 38 
 39 #ifndef STR
 40 # define _STR(x) #x
 41 # define STR(x) _STR(x)
 42 #endif
 43 
 44 /*
 45  * pagemap kernel ABI bits
 46  */
 47 
 48 #define PM_ENTRY_BYTES          8
 49 #define PM_PFRAME_BITS          55
 50 #define PM_PFRAME_MASK          ((1LL << PM_PFRAME_BITS) - 1)
 51 #define PM_PFRAME(x)            ((x) & PM_PFRAME_MASK)
 52 #define MAX_SWAPFILES_SHIFT     5
 53 #define PM_SWAP_OFFSET(x)       (((x) & PM_PFRAME_MASK) >> MAX_SWAPFILES_SHIFT)
 54 #define PM_SOFT_DIRTY           (1ULL << 55)
 55 #define PM_MMAP_EXCLUSIVE       (1ULL << 56)
 56 #define PM_FILE                 (1ULL << 61)
 57 #define PM_SWAP                 (1ULL << 62)
 58 #define PM_PRESENT              (1ULL << 63)
 59 
 60 /*
 61  * kernel page flags
 62  */
 63 
 64 #define KPF_BYTES               8
 65 #define PROC_KPAGEFLAGS         "/proc/kpageflags"
 66 #define PROC_KPAGECOUNT         "/proc/kpagecount"
 67 #define PROC_KPAGECGROUP        "/proc/kpagecgroup"
 68 
 69 #define SYS_KERNEL_MM_PAGE_IDLE "/sys/kernel/mm/page_idle/bitmap"
 70 
 71 /* [32-] kernel hacking assistances */
 72 #define KPF_RESERVED            32
 73 #define KPF_MLOCKED             33
 74 #define KPF_MAPPEDTODISK        34
 75 #define KPF_PRIVATE             35
 76 #define KPF_PRIVATE_2           36
 77 #define KPF_OWNER_PRIVATE       37
 78 #define KPF_ARCH                38
 79 #define KPF_UNCACHED            39
 80 #define KPF_SOFTDIRTY           40
 81 
 82 /* [48-] take some arbitrary free slots for expanding overloaded flags
 83  * not part of kernel API
 84  */
 85 #define KPF_READAHEAD           48
 86 #define KPF_SLOB_FREE           49
 87 #define KPF_SLUB_FROZEN         50
 88 #define KPF_SLUB_DEBUG          51
 89 #define KPF_FILE                61
 90 #define KPF_SWAP                62
 91 #define KPF_MMAP_EXCLUSIVE      63
 92 
 93 #define KPF_ALL_BITS            ((uint64_t)~0ULL)
 94 #define KPF_HACKERS_BITS        (0xffffULL << 32)
 95 #define KPF_OVERLOADED_BITS     (0xffffULL << 48)
 96 #define BIT(name)               (1ULL << KPF_##name)
 97 #define BITS_COMPOUND           (BIT(COMPOUND_HEAD) | BIT(COMPOUND_TAIL))
 98 
 99 static const char * const page_flag_names[] = {
100         [KPF_LOCKED]            = "L:locked",
101         [KPF_ERROR]             = "E:error",
102         [KPF_REFERENCED]        = "R:referenced",
103         [KPF_UPTODATE]          = "U:uptodate",
104         [KPF_DIRTY]             = "D:dirty",
105         [KPF_LRU]               = "l:lru",
106         [KPF_ACTIVE]            = "A:active",
107         [KPF_SLAB]              = "S:slab",
108         [KPF_WRITEBACK]         = "W:writeback",
109         [KPF_RECLAIM]           = "I:reclaim",
110         [KPF_BUDDY]             = "B:buddy",
111 
112         [KPF_MMAP]              = "M:mmap",
113         [KPF_ANON]              = "a:anonymous",
114         [KPF_SWAPCACHE]         = "s:swapcache",
115         [KPF_SWAPBACKED]        = "b:swapbacked",
116         [KPF_COMPOUND_HEAD]     = "H:compound_head",
117         [KPF_COMPOUND_TAIL]     = "T:compound_tail",
118         [KPF_HUGE]              = "G:huge",
119         [KPF_UNEVICTABLE]       = "u:unevictable",
120         [KPF_HWPOISON]          = "X:hwpoison",
121         [KPF_NOPAGE]            = "n:nopage",
122         [KPF_KSM]               = "x:ksm",
123         [KPF_THP]               = "t:thp",
124         [KPF_OFFLINE]           = "o:offline",
125         [KPF_PGTABLE]           = "g:pgtable",
126         [KPF_ZERO_PAGE]         = "z:zero_page",
127         [KPF_IDLE]              = "i:idle_page",
128 
129         [KPF_RESERVED]          = "r:reserved",
130         [KPF_MLOCKED]           = "m:mlocked",
131         [KPF_MAPPEDTODISK]      = "d:mappedtodisk",
132         [KPF_PRIVATE]           = "P:private",
133         [KPF_PRIVATE_2]         = "p:private_2",
134         [KPF_OWNER_PRIVATE]     = "O:owner_private",
135         [KPF_ARCH]              = "h:arch",
136         [KPF_UNCACHED]          = "c:uncached",
137         [KPF_SOFTDIRTY]         = "f:softdirty",
138 
139         [KPF_READAHEAD]         = "I:readahead",
140         [KPF_SLOB_FREE]         = "P:slob_free",
141         [KPF_SLUB_FROZEN]       = "A:slub_frozen",
142         [KPF_SLUB_DEBUG]        = "E:slub_debug",
143 
144         [KPF_FILE]              = "F:file",
145         [KPF_SWAP]              = "w:swap",
146         [KPF_MMAP_EXCLUSIVE]    = "1:mmap_exclusive",
147 };
148 
149 
150 /*
151  * data structures
152  */
153 
154 static int              opt_raw;        /* for kernel developers */
155 static int              opt_list;       /* list pages (in ranges) */
156 static int              opt_mark_idle;  /* set accessed bit */
157 static int              opt_no_summary; /* don't show summary */
158 static pid_t            opt_pid;        /* process to walk */
159 const char              *opt_file;      /* file or directory path */
160 static uint64_t         opt_cgroup;     /* cgroup inode */
161 static int              opt_list_cgroup;/* list page cgroup */
162 static int              opt_list_mapcnt;/* list page map count */
163 static const char       *opt_kpageflags;/* kpageflags file to parse */
164 
165 #define MAX_ADDR_RANGES 1024
166 static int              nr_addr_ranges;
167 static unsigned long    opt_offset[MAX_ADDR_RANGES];
168 static unsigned long    opt_size[MAX_ADDR_RANGES];
169 
170 #define MAX_VMAS        10240
171 static int              nr_vmas;
172 static unsigned long    pg_start[MAX_VMAS];
173 static unsigned long    pg_end[MAX_VMAS];
174 
175 #define MAX_BIT_FILTERS 64
176 static int              nr_bit_filters;
177 static uint64_t         opt_mask[MAX_BIT_FILTERS];
178 static uint64_t         opt_bits[MAX_BIT_FILTERS];
179 
180 static int              page_size;
181 
182 static int              pagemap_fd;
183 static int              kpageflags_fd;
184 static int              kpagecount_fd = -1;
185 static int              kpagecgroup_fd = -1;
186 static int              page_idle_fd = -1;
187 
188 static int              opt_hwpoison;
189 static int              opt_unpoison;
190 
191 static const char       *hwpoison_debug_fs;
192 static int              hwpoison_inject_fd;
193 static int              hwpoison_forget_fd;
194 
195 #define HASH_SHIFT      13
196 #define HASH_SIZE       (1 << HASH_SHIFT)
197 #define HASH_MASK       (HASH_SIZE - 1)
198 #define HASH_KEY(flags) (flags & HASH_MASK)
199 
200 static unsigned long    total_pages;
201 static unsigned long    nr_pages[HASH_SIZE];
202 static uint64_t         page_flags[HASH_SIZE];
203 
204 
205 /*
206  * helper functions
207  */
208 
209 #define ARRAY_SIZE(x) (sizeof(x) / sizeof((x)[0]))
210 
211 #define min_t(type, x, y) ({                    \
212         type __min1 = (x);                      \
213         type __min2 = (y);                      \
214         __min1 < __min2 ? __min1 : __min2; })
215 
216 #define max_t(type, x, y) ({                    \
217         type __max1 = (x);                      \
218         type __max2 = (y);                      \
219         __max1 > __max2 ? __max1 : __max2; })
220 
221 static unsigned long pages2mb(unsigned long pages)
222 {
223         return (pages * page_size) >> 20;
224 }
225 
226 static void fatal(const char *x, ...)
227 {
228         va_list ap;
229 
230         va_start(ap, x);
231         vfprintf(stderr, x, ap);
232         va_end(ap);
233         exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
234 }
235 
236 static int checked_open(const char *pathname, int flags)
237 {
238         int fd = open(pathname, flags);
239 
240         if (fd < 0) {
241                 perror(pathname);
242                 exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
243         }
244 
245         return fd;
246 }
247 
248 /*
249  * pagemap/kpageflags routines
250  */
251 
252 static unsigned long do_u64_read(int fd, const char *name,
253                                  uint64_t *buf,
254                                  unsigned long index,
255                                  unsigned long count)
256 {
257         long bytes;
258 
259         if (index > ULONG_MAX / 8)
260                 fatal("index overflow: %lu\n", index);
261 
262         bytes = pread(fd, buf, count * 8, (off_t)index * 8);
263         if (bytes < 0) {
264                 perror(name);
265                 exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
266         }
267         if (bytes % 8)
268                 fatal("partial read: %lu bytes\n", bytes);
269 
270         return bytes / 8;
271 }
272 
273 static unsigned long kpageflags_read(uint64_t *buf,
274                                      unsigned long index,
275                                      unsigned long pages)
276 {
277         return do_u64_read(kpageflags_fd, opt_kpageflags, buf, index, pages);
278 }
279 
280 static unsigned long kpagecgroup_read(uint64_t *buf,
281                                       unsigned long index,
282                                       unsigned long pages)
283 {
284         if (kpagecgroup_fd < 0)
285                 return pages;
286 
287         return do_u64_read(kpagecgroup_fd, opt_kpageflags, buf, index, pages);
288 }
289 
290 static unsigned long kpagecount_read(uint64_t *buf,
291                                      unsigned long index,
292                                      unsigned long pages)
293 {
294         return kpagecount_fd < 0 ? pages :
295                 do_u64_read(kpagecount_fd, PROC_KPAGECOUNT,
296                             buf, index, pages);
297 }
298 
299 static unsigned long pagemap_read(uint64_t *buf,
300                                   unsigned long index,
301                                   unsigned long pages)
302 {
303         return do_u64_read(pagemap_fd, "/proc/pid/pagemap", buf, index, pages);
304 }
305 
306 static unsigned long pagemap_pfn(uint64_t val)
307 {
308         unsigned long pfn;
309 
310         if (val & PM_PRESENT)
311                 pfn = PM_PFRAME(val);
312         else
313                 pfn = 0;
314 
315         return pfn;
316 }
317 
318 static unsigned long pagemap_swap_offset(uint64_t val)
319 {
320         return val & PM_SWAP ? PM_SWAP_OFFSET(val) : 0;
321 }
322 
323 /*
324  * page flag names
325  */
326 
327 static char *page_flag_name(uint64_t flags)
328 {
329         static char buf[65];
330         int present;
331         size_t i, j;
332 
333         for (i = 0, j = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
334                 present = (flags >> i) & 1;
335                 if (!page_flag_names[i]) {
336                         if (present)
337                                 fatal("unknown flag bit %d\n", i);
338                         continue;
339                 }
340                 buf[j++] = present ? page_flag_names[i][0] : '_';
341         }
342 
343         return buf;
344 }
345 
346 static char *page_flag_longname(uint64_t flags)
347 {
348         static char buf[1024];
349         size_t i, n;
350 
351         for (i = 0, n = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
352                 if (!page_flag_names[i])
353                         continue;
354                 if ((flags >> i) & 1)
355                         n += snprintf(buf + n, sizeof(buf) - n, "%s,",
356                                         page_flag_names[i] + 2);
357         }
358         if (n)
359                 n--;
360         buf[n] = '\0';
361 
362         return buf;
363 }
364 
365 
366 /*
367  * page list and summary
368  */
369 
370 static void show_page_range(unsigned long voffset, unsigned long offset,
371                             unsigned long size, uint64_t flags,
372                             uint64_t cgroup, uint64_t mapcnt)
373 {
374         static uint64_t      flags0;
375         static uint64_t      cgroup0;
376         static uint64_t      mapcnt0;
377         static unsigned long voff;
378         static unsigned long index;
379         static unsigned long count;
380 
381         if (flags == flags0 && cgroup == cgroup0 && mapcnt == mapcnt0 &&
382             offset == index + count && size && voffset == voff + count) {
383                 count += size;
384                 return;
385         }
386 
387         if (count) {
388                 if (opt_pid)
389                         printf("%lx\t", voff);
390                 if (opt_file)
391                         printf("%lu\t", voff);
392                 if (opt_list_cgroup)
393                         printf("@%llu\t", (unsigned long long)cgroup0);
394                 if (opt_list_mapcnt)
395                         printf("%lu\t", mapcnt0);
396                 printf("%lx\t%lx\t%s\n",
397                                 index, count, page_flag_name(flags0));
398         }
399 
400         flags0 = flags;
401         cgroup0 = cgroup;
402         mapcnt0 = mapcnt;
403         index  = offset;
404         voff   = voffset;
405         count  = size;
406 }
407 
408 static void flush_page_range(void)
409 {
410         show_page_range(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);
411 }
412 
413 static void show_page(unsigned long voffset, unsigned long offset,
414                       uint64_t flags, uint64_t cgroup, uint64_t mapcnt)
415 {
416         if (opt_pid)
417                 printf("%lx\t", voffset);
418         if (opt_file)
419                 printf("%lu\t", voffset);
420         if (opt_list_cgroup)
421                 printf("@%llu\t", (unsigned long long)cgroup);
422         if (opt_list_mapcnt)
423                 printf("%lu\t", mapcnt);
424 
425         printf("%lx\t%s\n", offset, page_flag_name(flags));
426 }
427 
428 static void show_summary(void)
429 {
430         size_t i;
431 
432         printf("             flags\tpage-count       MB"
433                 "  symbolic-flags\t\t\tlong-symbolic-flags\n");
434 
435         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(nr_pages); i++) {
436                 if (nr_pages[i])
437                         printf("0x%016llx\t%10lu %8lu  %s\t%s\n",
438                                 (unsigned long long)page_flags[i],
439                                 nr_pages[i],
440                                 pages2mb(nr_pages[i]),
441                                 page_flag_name(page_flags[i]),
442                                 page_flag_longname(page_flags[i]));
443         }
444 
445         printf("             total\t%10lu %8lu\n",
446                         total_pages, pages2mb(total_pages));
447 }
448 
449 
450 /*
451  * page flag filters
452  */
453 
454 static int bit_mask_ok(uint64_t flags)
455 {
456         int i;
457 
458         for (i = 0; i < nr_bit_filters; i++) {
459                 if (opt_bits[i] == KPF_ALL_BITS) {
460                         if ((flags & opt_mask[i]) == 0)
461                                 return 0;
462                 } else {
463                         if ((flags & opt_mask[i]) != opt_bits[i])
464                                 return 0;
465                 }
466         }
467 
468         return 1;
469 }
470 
471 static uint64_t expand_overloaded_flags(uint64_t flags, uint64_t pme)
472 {
473         /* SLOB/SLUB overload several page flags */
474         if (flags & BIT(SLAB)) {
475                 if (flags & BIT(PRIVATE))
476                         flags ^= BIT(PRIVATE) | BIT(SLOB_FREE);
477                 if (flags & BIT(ACTIVE))
478                         flags ^= BIT(ACTIVE) | BIT(SLUB_FROZEN);
479                 if (flags & BIT(ERROR))
480                         flags ^= BIT(ERROR) | BIT(SLUB_DEBUG);
481         }
482 
483         /* PG_reclaim is overloaded as PG_readahead in the read path */
484         if ((flags & (BIT(RECLAIM) | BIT(WRITEBACK))) == BIT(RECLAIM))
485                 flags ^= BIT(RECLAIM) | BIT(READAHEAD);
486 
487         if (pme & PM_SOFT_DIRTY)
488                 flags |= BIT(SOFTDIRTY);
489         if (pme & PM_FILE)
490                 flags |= BIT(FILE);
491         if (pme & PM_SWAP)
492                 flags |= BIT(SWAP);
493         if (pme & PM_MMAP_EXCLUSIVE)
494                 flags |= BIT(MMAP_EXCLUSIVE);
495 
496         return flags;
497 }
498 
499 static uint64_t well_known_flags(uint64_t flags)
500 {
501         /* hide flags intended only for kernel hacker */
502         flags &= ~KPF_HACKERS_BITS;
503 
504         /* hide non-hugeTLB compound pages */
505         if ((flags & BITS_COMPOUND) && !(flags & BIT(HUGE)))
506                 flags &= ~BITS_COMPOUND;
507 
508         return flags;
509 }
510 
511 static uint64_t kpageflags_flags(uint64_t flags, uint64_t pme)
512 {
513         if (opt_raw)
514                 flags = expand_overloaded_flags(flags, pme);
515         else
516                 flags = well_known_flags(flags);
517 
518         return flags;
519 }
520 
521 /*
522  * page actions
523  */
524 
525 static void prepare_hwpoison_fd(void)
526 {
527         char buf[MAX_PATH + 1];
528 
529         hwpoison_debug_fs = debugfs__mount();
530         if (!hwpoison_debug_fs) {
531                 perror("mount debugfs");
532                 exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
533         }
534 
535         if (opt_hwpoison && !hwpoison_inject_fd) {
536                 snprintf(buf, MAX_PATH, "%s/hwpoison/corrupt-pfn",
537                         hwpoison_debug_fs);
538                 hwpoison_inject_fd = checked_open(buf, O_WRONLY);
539         }
540 
541         if (opt_unpoison && !hwpoison_forget_fd) {
542                 snprintf(buf, MAX_PATH, "%s/hwpoison/unpoison-pfn",
543                         hwpoison_debug_fs);
544                 hwpoison_forget_fd = checked_open(buf, O_WRONLY);
545         }
546 }
547 
548 static int hwpoison_page(unsigned long offset)
549 {
550         char buf[100];
551         int len;
552 
553         len = sprintf(buf, "0x%lx\n", offset);
554         len = write(hwpoison_inject_fd, buf, len);
555         if (len < 0) {
556                 perror("hwpoison inject");
557                 return len;
558         }
559         return 0;
560 }
561 
562 static int unpoison_page(unsigned long offset)
563 {
564         char buf[100];
565         int len;
566 
567         len = sprintf(buf, "0x%lx\n", offset);
568         len = write(hwpoison_forget_fd, buf, len);
569         if (len < 0) {
570                 perror("hwpoison forget");
571                 return len;
572         }
573         return 0;
574 }
575 
576 static int mark_page_idle(unsigned long offset)
577 {
578         static unsigned long off;
579         static uint64_t buf;
580         int len;
581 
582         if ((offset / 64 == off / 64) || buf == 0) {
583                 buf |= 1UL << (offset % 64);
584                 off = offset;
585                 return 0;
586         }
587 
588         len = pwrite(page_idle_fd, &buf, 8, 8 * (off / 64));
589         if (len < 0) {
590                 perror("mark page idle");
591                 return len;
592         }
593 
594         buf = 1UL << (offset % 64);
595         off = offset;
596 
597         return 0;
598 }
599 
600 /*
601  * page frame walker
602  */
603 
604 static size_t hash_slot(uint64_t flags)
605 {
606         size_t k = HASH_KEY(flags);
607         size_t i;
608 
609         /* Explicitly reserve slot 0 for flags 0: the following logic
610          * cannot distinguish an unoccupied slot from slot (flags==0).
611          */
612         if (flags == 0)
613                 return 0;
614 
615         /* search through the remaining (HASH_SIZE-1) slots */
616         for (i = 1; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flags); i++, k++) {
617                 if (!k || k >= ARRAY_SIZE(page_flags))
618                         k = 1;
619                 if (page_flags[k] == 0) {
620                         page_flags[k] = flags;
621                         return k;
622                 }
623                 if (page_flags[k] == flags)
624                         return k;
625         }
626 
627         fatal("hash table full: bump up HASH_SHIFT?\n");
628         exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
629 }
630 
631 static void add_page(unsigned long voffset, unsigned long offset,
632                      uint64_t flags, uint64_t cgroup, uint64_t mapcnt,
633                      uint64_t pme)
634 {
635         flags = kpageflags_flags(flags, pme);
636 
637         if (!bit_mask_ok(flags))
638                 return;
639 
640         if (opt_cgroup && cgroup != (uint64_t)opt_cgroup)
641                 return;
642 
643         if (opt_hwpoison)
644                 hwpoison_page(offset);
645         if (opt_unpoison)
646                 unpoison_page(offset);
647 
648         if (opt_mark_idle)
649                 mark_page_idle(offset);
650 
651         if (opt_list == 1)
652                 show_page_range(voffset, offset, 1, flags, cgroup, mapcnt);
653         else if (opt_list == 2)
654                 show_page(voffset, offset, flags, cgroup, mapcnt);
655 
656         nr_pages[hash_slot(flags)]++;
657         total_pages++;
658 }
659 
660 #define KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH        (64 << 10)      /* 64k pages */
661 static void walk_pfn(unsigned long voffset,
662                      unsigned long index,
663                      unsigned long count,
664                      uint64_t pme)
665 {
666         uint64_t buf[KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH];
667         uint64_t cgi[KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH];
668         uint64_t cnt[KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH];
669         unsigned long batch;
670         unsigned long pages;
671         unsigned long i;
672 
673         /*
674          * kpagecgroup_read() reads only if kpagecgroup were opened, but
675          * /proc/kpagecgroup might even not exist, so it's better to fill
676          * them with zeros here.
677          */
678         if (count == 1)
679                 cgi[0] = 0;
680         else
681                 memset(cgi, 0, sizeof cgi);
682 
683         while (count) {
684                 batch = min_t(unsigned long, count, KPAGEFLAGS_BATCH);
685                 pages = kpageflags_read(buf, index, batch);
686                 if (pages == 0)
687                         break;
688 
689                 if (kpagecgroup_read(cgi, index, pages) != pages)
690                         fatal("kpagecgroup returned fewer pages than expected");
691 
692                 if (kpagecount_read(cnt, index, pages) != pages)
693                         fatal("kpagecount returned fewer pages than expected");
694 
695                 for (i = 0; i < pages; i++)
696                         add_page(voffset + i, index + i,
697                                  buf[i], cgi[i], cnt[i], pme);
698 
699                 index += pages;
700                 count -= pages;
701         }
702 }
703 
704 static void walk_swap(unsigned long voffset, uint64_t pme)
705 {
706         uint64_t flags = kpageflags_flags(0, pme);
707 
708         if (!bit_mask_ok(flags))
709                 return;
710 
711         if (opt_cgroup)
712                 return;
713 
714         if (opt_list == 1)
715                 show_page_range(voffset, pagemap_swap_offset(pme),
716                                 1, flags, 0, 0);
717         else if (opt_list == 2)
718                 show_page(voffset, pagemap_swap_offset(pme), flags, 0, 0);
719 
720         nr_pages[hash_slot(flags)]++;
721         total_pages++;
722 }
723 
724 #define PAGEMAP_BATCH   (64 << 10)
725 static void walk_vma(unsigned long index, unsigned long count)
726 {
727         uint64_t buf[PAGEMAP_BATCH];
728         unsigned long batch;
729         unsigned long pages;
730         unsigned long pfn;
731         unsigned long i;
732 
733         while (count) {
734                 batch = min_t(unsigned long, count, PAGEMAP_BATCH);
735                 pages = pagemap_read(buf, index, batch);
736                 if (pages == 0)
737                         break;
738 
739                 for (i = 0; i < pages; i++) {
740                         pfn = pagemap_pfn(buf[i]);
741                         if (pfn)
742                                 walk_pfn(index + i, pfn, 1, buf[i]);
743                         if (buf[i] & PM_SWAP)
744                                 walk_swap(index + i, buf[i]);
745                 }
746 
747                 index += pages;
748                 count -= pages;
749         }
750 }
751 
752 static void walk_task(unsigned long index, unsigned long count)
753 {
754         const unsigned long end = index + count;
755         unsigned long start;
756         int i = 0;
757 
758         while (index < end) {
759 
760                 while (pg_end[i] <= index)
761                         if (++i >= nr_vmas)
762                                 return;
763                 if (pg_start[i] >= end)
764                         return;
765 
766                 start = max_t(unsigned long, pg_start[i], index);
767                 index = min_t(unsigned long, pg_end[i], end);
768 
769                 assert(start < index);
770                 walk_vma(start, index - start);
771         }
772 }
773 
774 static void add_addr_range(unsigned long offset, unsigned long size)
775 {
776         if (nr_addr_ranges >= MAX_ADDR_RANGES)
777                 fatal("too many addr ranges\n");
778 
779         opt_offset[nr_addr_ranges] = offset;
780         opt_size[nr_addr_ranges] = min_t(unsigned long, size, ULONG_MAX-offset);
781         nr_addr_ranges++;
782 }
783 
784 static void walk_addr_ranges(void)
785 {
786         int i;
787 
788         kpageflags_fd = checked_open(opt_kpageflags, O_RDONLY);
789 
790         if (!nr_addr_ranges)
791                 add_addr_range(0, ULONG_MAX);
792 
793         for (i = 0; i < nr_addr_ranges; i++)
794                 if (!opt_pid)
795                         walk_pfn(opt_offset[i], opt_offset[i], opt_size[i], 0);
796                 else
797                         walk_task(opt_offset[i], opt_size[i]);
798 
799         if (opt_mark_idle)
800                 mark_page_idle(0);
801 
802         close(kpageflags_fd);
803 }
804 
805 
806 /*
807  * user interface
808  */
809 
810 static const char *page_flag_type(uint64_t flag)
811 {
812         if (flag & KPF_HACKERS_BITS)
813                 return "(r)";
814         if (flag & KPF_OVERLOADED_BITS)
815                 return "(o)";
816         return "   ";
817 }
818 
819 static void usage(void)
820 {
821         size_t i, j;
822 
823         printf(
824 "page-types [options]\n"
825 "            -r|--raw                   Raw mode, for kernel developers\n"
826 "            -d|--describe flags        Describe flags\n"
827 "            -a|--addr    addr-spec     Walk a range of pages\n"
828 "            -b|--bits    bits-spec     Walk pages with specified bits\n"
829 "            -c|--cgroup  path|@inode   Walk pages within memory cgroup\n"
830 "            -p|--pid     pid           Walk process address space\n"
831 "            -f|--file    filename      Walk file address space\n"
832 "            -i|--mark-idle             Mark pages idle\n"
833 "            -l|--list                  Show page details in ranges\n"
834 "            -L|--list-each             Show page details one by one\n"
835 "            -C|--list-cgroup           Show cgroup inode for pages\n"
836 "            -M|--list-mapcnt           Show page map count\n"
837 "            -N|--no-summary            Don't show summary info\n"
838 "            -X|--hwpoison              hwpoison pages\n"
839 "            -x|--unpoison              unpoison pages\n"
840 "            -F|--kpageflags filename   kpageflags file to parse\n"
841 "            -h|--help                  Show this usage message\n"
842 "flags:\n"
843 "            0x10                       bitfield format, e.g.\n"
844 "            anon                       bit-name, e.g.\n"
845 "            0x10,anon                  comma-separated list, e.g.\n"
846 "addr-spec:\n"
847 "            N                          one page at offset N (unit: pages)\n"
848 "            N+M                        pages range from N to N+M-1\n"
849 "            N,M                        pages range from N to M-1\n"
850 "            N,                         pages range from N to end\n"
851 "            ,M                         pages range from 0 to M-1\n"
852 "bits-spec:\n"
853 "            bit1,bit2                  (flags & (bit1|bit2)) != 0\n"
854 "            bit1,bit2=bit1             (flags & (bit1|bit2)) == bit1\n"
855 "            bit1,~bit2                 (flags & (bit1|bit2)) == bit1\n"
856 "            =bit1,bit2                 flags == (bit1|bit2)\n"
857 "bit-names:\n"
858         );
859 
860         for (i = 0, j = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
861                 if (!page_flag_names[i])
862                         continue;
863                 printf("%16s%s", page_flag_names[i] + 2,
864                                  page_flag_type(1ULL << i));
865                 if (++j > 3) {
866                         j = 0;
867                         putchar('\n');
868                 }
869         }
870         printf("\n                                   "
871                 "(r) raw mode bits  (o) overloaded bits\n");
872 }
873 
874 static unsigned long long parse_number(const char *str)
875 {
876         unsigned long long n;
877 
878         n = strtoll(str, NULL, 0);
879 
880         if (n == 0 && str[0] != '')
881                 fatal("invalid name or number: %s\n", str);
882 
883         return n;
884 }
885 
886 static void parse_pid(const char *str)
887 {
888         FILE *file;
889         char buf[5000];
890 
891         opt_pid = parse_number(str);
892 
893         sprintf(buf, "/proc/%d/pagemap", opt_pid);
894         pagemap_fd = checked_open(buf, O_RDONLY);
895 
896         sprintf(buf, "/proc/%d/maps", opt_pid);
897         file = fopen(buf, "r");
898         if (!file) {
899                 perror(buf);
900                 exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
901         }
902 
903         while (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), file) != NULL) {
904                 unsigned long vm_start;
905                 unsigned long vm_end;
906                 unsigned long long pgoff;
907                 int major, minor;
908                 char r, w, x, s;
909                 unsigned long ino;
910                 int n;
911 
912                 n = sscanf(buf, "%lx-%lx %c%c%c%c %llx %x:%x %lu",
913                            &vm_start,
914                            &vm_end,
915                            &r, &w, &x, &s,
916                            &pgoff,
917                            &major, &minor,
918                            &ino);
919                 if (n < 10) {
920                         fprintf(stderr, "unexpected line: %s\n", buf);
921                         continue;
922                 }
923                 pg_start[nr_vmas] = vm_start / page_size;
924                 pg_end[nr_vmas] = vm_end / page_size;
925                 if (++nr_vmas >= MAX_VMAS) {
926                         fprintf(stderr, "too many VMAs\n");
927                         break;
928                 }
929         }
930         fclose(file);
931 }
932 
933 static void show_file(const char *name, const struct stat *st)
934 {
935         unsigned long long size = st->st_size;
936         char atime[64], mtime[64];
937         long now = time(NULL);
938 
939         printf("%s\tInode: %u\tSize: %llu (%llu pages)\n",
940                         name, (unsigned)st->st_ino,
941                         size, (size + page_size - 1) / page_size);
942 
943         strftime(atime, sizeof(atime), "%c", localtime(&st->st_atime));
944         strftime(mtime, sizeof(mtime), "%c", localtime(&st->st_mtime));
945 
946         printf("Modify: %s (%ld seconds ago)\nAccess: %s (%ld seconds ago)\n",
947                         mtime, now - st->st_mtime,
948                         atime, now - st->st_atime);
949 }
950 
951 static sigjmp_buf sigbus_jmp;
952 
953 static void * volatile sigbus_addr;
954 
955 static void sigbus_handler(int sig, siginfo_t *info, void *ucontex)
956 {
957         (void)sig;
958         (void)ucontex;
959         sigbus_addr = info ? info->si_addr : NULL;
960         siglongjmp(sigbus_jmp, 1);
961 }
962 
963 static struct sigaction sigbus_action = {
964         .sa_sigaction = sigbus_handler,
965         .sa_flags = SA_SIGINFO,
966 };
967 
968 static void walk_file(const char *name, const struct stat *st)
969 {
970         uint8_t vec[PAGEMAP_BATCH];
971         uint64_t buf[PAGEMAP_BATCH], flags;
972         uint64_t cgroup = 0;
973         uint64_t mapcnt = 0;
974         unsigned long nr_pages, pfn, i;
975         off_t off, end = st->st_size;
976         int fd;
977         ssize_t len;
978         void *ptr;
979         int first = 1;
980 
981         fd = checked_open(name, O_RDONLY|O_NOATIME|O_NOFOLLOW);
982 
983         for (off = 0; off < end; off += len) {
984                 nr_pages = (end - off + page_size - 1) / page_size;
985                 if (nr_pages > PAGEMAP_BATCH)
986                         nr_pages = PAGEMAP_BATCH;
987                 len = nr_pages * page_size;
988 
989                 ptr = mmap(NULL, len, PROT_READ, MAP_SHARED, fd, off);
990                 if (ptr == MAP_FAILED)
991                         fatal("mmap failed: %s", name);
992 
993                 /* determine cached pages */
994                 if (mincore(ptr, len, vec))
995                         fatal("mincore failed: %s", name);
996 
997                 /* turn off readahead */
998                 if (madvise(ptr, len, MADV_RANDOM))
999                         fatal("madvice failed: %s", name);
1000 
1001                 if (sigsetjmp(sigbus_jmp, 1)) {
1002                         end = off + sigbus_addr ? sigbus_addr - ptr : 0;
1003                         fprintf(stderr, "got sigbus at offset %lld: %s\n",
1004                                         (long long)end, name);
1005                         goto got_sigbus;
1006                 }
1007 
1008                 /* populate ptes */
1009                 for (i = 0; i < nr_pages ; i++) {
1010                         if (vec[i] & 1)
1011                                 (void)*(volatile int *)(ptr + i * page_size);
1012                 }
1013 got_sigbus:
1014 
1015                 /* turn off harvesting reference bits */
1016                 if (madvise(ptr, len, MADV_SEQUENTIAL))
1017                         fatal("madvice failed: %s", name);
1018 
1019                 if (pagemap_read(buf, (unsigned long)ptr / page_size,
1020                                         nr_pages) != nr_pages)
1021                         fatal("cannot read pagemap");
1022 
1023                 munmap(ptr, len);
1024 
1025                 for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) {
1026                         pfn = pagemap_pfn(buf[i]);
1027                         if (!pfn)
1028                                 continue;
1029                         if (!kpageflags_read(&flags, pfn, 1))
1030                                 continue;
1031                         if (!kpagecgroup_read(&cgroup, pfn, 1))
1032                                 fatal("kpagecgroup_read failed");
1033                         if (!kpagecount_read(&mapcnt, pfn, 1))
1034                                 fatal("kpagecount_read failed");
1035                         if (first && opt_list) {
1036                                 first = 0;
1037                                 flush_page_range();
1038                                 show_file(name, st);
1039                         }
1040                         add_page(off / page_size + i, pfn,
1041                                  flags, cgroup, mapcnt, buf[i]);
1042                 }
1043         }
1044 
1045         close(fd);
1046 }
1047 
1048 int walk_tree(const char *name, const struct stat *st, int type, struct FTW *f)
1049 {
1050         (void)f;
1051         switch (type) {
1052         case FTW_F:
1053                 if (S_ISREG(st->st_mode))
1054                         walk_file(name, st);
1055                 break;
1056         case FTW_DNR:
1057                 fprintf(stderr, "cannot read dir: %s\n", name);
1058                 break;
1059         }
1060         return 0;
1061 }
1062 
1063 static void walk_page_cache(void)
1064 {
1065         struct stat st;
1066 
1067         kpageflags_fd = checked_open(opt_kpageflags, O_RDONLY);
1068         pagemap_fd = checked_open("/proc/self/pagemap", O_RDONLY);
1069         sigaction(SIGBUS, &sigbus_action, NULL);
1070 
1071         if (stat(opt_file, &st))
1072                 fatal("stat failed: %s\n", opt_file);
1073 
1074         if (S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) {
1075                 walk_file(opt_file, &st);
1076         } else if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) {
1077                 /* do not follow symlinks and mountpoints */
1078                 if (nftw(opt_file, walk_tree, 64, FTW_MOUNT | FTW_PHYS) < 0)
1079                         fatal("nftw failed: %s\n", opt_file);
1080         } else
1081                 fatal("unhandled file type: %s\n", opt_file);
1082 
1083         close(kpageflags_fd);
1084         close(pagemap_fd);
1085         signal(SIGBUS, SIG_DFL);
1086 }
1087 
1088 static void parse_file(const char *name)
1089 {
1090         opt_file = name;
1091 }
1092 
1093 static void parse_cgroup(const char *path)
1094 {
1095         if (path[0] == '@') {
1096                 opt_cgroup = parse_number(path + 1);
1097                 return;
1098         }
1099 
1100         struct stat st;
1101 
1102         if (stat(path, &st))
1103                 fatal("stat failed: %s: %m\n", path);
1104 
1105         if (!S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
1106                 fatal("cgroup supposed to be a directory: %s\n", path);
1107 
1108         opt_cgroup = st.st_ino;
1109 }
1110 
1111 static void parse_addr_range(const char *optarg)
1112 {
1113         unsigned long offset;
1114         unsigned long size;
1115         char *p;
1116 
1117         p = strchr(optarg, ',');
1118         if (!p)
1119                 p = strchr(optarg, '+');
1120 
1121         if (p == optarg) {
1122                 offset = 0;
1123                 size   = parse_number(p + 1);
1124         } else if (p) {
1125                 offset = parse_number(optarg);
1126                 if (p[1] == '\0')
1127                         size = ULONG_MAX;
1128                 else {
1129                         size = parse_number(p + 1);
1130                         if (*p == ',') {
1131                                 if (size < offset)
1132                                         fatal("invalid range: %lu,%lu\n",
1133                                                         offset, size);
1134                                 size -= offset;
1135                         }
1136                 }
1137         } else {
1138                 offset = parse_number(optarg);
1139                 size   = 1;
1140         }
1141 
1142         add_addr_range(offset, size);
1143 }
1144 
1145 static void add_bits_filter(uint64_t mask, uint64_t bits)
1146 {
1147         if (nr_bit_filters >= MAX_BIT_FILTERS)
1148                 fatal("too much bit filters\n");
1149 
1150         opt_mask[nr_bit_filters] = mask;
1151         opt_bits[nr_bit_filters] = bits;
1152         nr_bit_filters++;
1153 }
1154 
1155 static uint64_t parse_flag_name(const char *str, int len)
1156 {
1157         size_t i;
1158 
1159         if (!*str || !len)
1160                 return 0;
1161 
1162         if (len <= 8 && !strncmp(str, "compound", len))
1163                 return BITS_COMPOUND;
1164 
1165         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(page_flag_names); i++) {
1166                 if (!page_flag_names[i])
1167                         continue;
1168                 if (!strncmp(str, page_flag_names[i] + 2, len))
1169                         return 1ULL << i;
1170         }
1171 
1172         return parse_number(str);
1173 }
1174 
1175 static uint64_t parse_flag_names(const char *str, int all)
1176 {
1177         const char *p    = str;
1178         uint64_t   flags = 0;
1179 
1180         while (1) {
1181                 if (*p == ',' || *p == '=' || *p == '\0') {
1182                         if ((*str != '~') || (*str == '~' && all && *++str))
1183                                 flags |= parse_flag_name(str, p - str);
1184                         if (*p != ',')
1185                                 break;
1186                         str = p + 1;
1187                 }
1188                 p++;
1189         }
1190 
1191         return flags;
1192 }
1193 
1194 static void parse_bits_mask(const char *optarg)
1195 {
1196         uint64_t mask;
1197         uint64_t bits;
1198         const char *p;
1199 
1200         p = strchr(optarg, '=');
1201         if (p == optarg) {
1202                 mask = KPF_ALL_BITS;
1203                 bits = parse_flag_names(p + 1, 0);
1204         } else if (p) {
1205                 mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
1206                 bits = parse_flag_names(p + 1, 0);
1207         } else if (strchr(optarg, '~')) {
1208                 mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 1);
1209                 bits = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
1210         } else {
1211                 mask = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
1212                 bits = KPF_ALL_BITS;
1213         }
1214 
1215         add_bits_filter(mask, bits);
1216 }
1217 
1218 static void parse_kpageflags(const char *name)
1219 {
1220         opt_kpageflags = name;
1221 }
1222 
1223 static void describe_flags(const char *optarg)
1224 {
1225         uint64_t flags = parse_flag_names(optarg, 0);
1226 
1227         printf("0x%016llx\t%s\t%s\n",
1228                 (unsigned long long)flags,
1229                 page_flag_name(flags),
1230                 page_flag_longname(flags));
1231 }
1232 
1233 static const struct option opts[] = {
1234         { "raw"       , 0, NULL, 'r' },
1235         { "pid"       , 1, NULL, 'p' },
1236         { "file"      , 1, NULL, 'f' },
1237         { "addr"      , 1, NULL, 'a' },
1238         { "bits"      , 1, NULL, 'b' },
1239         { "cgroup"    , 1, NULL, 'c' },
1240         { "describe"  , 1, NULL, 'd' },
1241         { "mark-idle" , 0, NULL, 'i' },
1242         { "list"      , 0, NULL, 'l' },
1243         { "list-each" , 0, NULL, 'L' },
1244         { "list-cgroup", 0, NULL, 'C' },
1245         { "list-mapcnt", 0, NULL, 'M' },
1246         { "no-summary", 0, NULL, 'N' },
1247         { "hwpoison"  , 0, NULL, 'X' },
1248         { "unpoison"  , 0, NULL, 'x' },
1249         { "kpageflags", 0, NULL, 'F' },
1250         { "help"      , 0, NULL, 'h' },
1251         { NULL        , 0, NULL, 0 }
1252 };
1253 
1254 int main(int argc, char *argv[])
1255 {
1256         int c;
1257 
1258         page_size = getpagesize();
1259 
1260         while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv,
1261                                 "rp:f:a:b:d:c:CilLMNXxF:h",
1262                                 opts, NULL)) != -1) {
1263                 switch (c) {
1264                 case 'r':
1265                         opt_raw = 1;
1266                         break;
1267                 case 'p':
1268                         parse_pid(optarg);
1269                         break;
1270                 case 'f':
1271                         parse_file(optarg);
1272                         break;
1273                 case 'a':
1274                         parse_addr_range(optarg);
1275                         break;
1276                 case 'b':
1277                         parse_bits_mask(optarg);
1278                         break;
1279                 case 'c':
1280                         parse_cgroup(optarg);
1281                         break;
1282                 case 'C':
1283                         opt_list_cgroup = 1;
1284                         break;
1285                 case 'd':
1286                         describe_flags(optarg);
1287                         exit(0);
1288                 case 'i':
1289                         opt_mark_idle = 1;
1290                         break;
1291                 case 'l':
1292                         opt_list = 1;
1293                         break;
1294                 case 'L':
1295                         opt_list = 2;
1296                         break;
1297                 case 'M':
1298                         opt_list_mapcnt = 1;
1299                         break;
1300                 case 'N':
1301                         opt_no_summary = 1;
1302                         break;
1303                 case 'X':
1304                         opt_hwpoison = 1;
1305                         prepare_hwpoison_fd();
1306                         break;
1307                 case 'x':
1308                         opt_unpoison = 1;
1309                         prepare_hwpoison_fd();
1310                         break;
1311                 case 'F':
1312                         parse_kpageflags(optarg);
1313                         break;
1314                 case 'h':
1315                         usage();
1316                         exit(0);
1317                 default:
1318                         usage();
1319                         exit(1);
1320                 }
1321         }
1322 
1323         if (!opt_kpageflags)
1324                 opt_kpageflags = PROC_KPAGEFLAGS;
1325 
1326         if (opt_cgroup || opt_list_cgroup)
1327                 kpagecgroup_fd = checked_open(PROC_KPAGECGROUP, O_RDONLY);
1328 
1329         if (opt_list && opt_list_mapcnt)
1330                 kpagecount_fd = checked_open(PROC_KPAGECOUNT, O_RDONLY);
1331 
1332         if (opt_mark_idle && opt_file)
1333                 page_idle_fd = checked_open(SYS_KERNEL_MM_PAGE_IDLE, O_RDWR);
1334 
1335         if (opt_list && opt_pid)
1336                 printf("voffset\t");
1337         if (opt_list && opt_file)
1338                 printf("foffset\t");
1339         if (opt_list && opt_list_cgroup)
1340                 printf("cgroup\t");
1341         if (opt_list && opt_list_mapcnt)
1342                 printf("map-cnt\t");
1343 
1344         if (opt_list == 1)
1345                 printf("offset\tlen\tflags\n");
1346         if (opt_list == 2)
1347                 printf("offset\tflags\n");
1348 
1349         if (opt_file)
1350                 walk_page_cache();
1351         else
1352                 walk_addr_ranges();
1353 
1354         if (opt_list == 1)
1355                 flush_page_range();
1356 
1357         if (opt_no_summary)
1358                 return 0;
1359 
1360         if (opt_list)
1361                 printf("\n\n");
1362 
1363         show_summary();
1364 
1365         if (opt_list_mapcnt)
1366                 close(kpagecount_fd);
1367 
1368         if (page_idle_fd >= 0)
1369                 close(page_idle_fd);
1370 
1371         return 0;
1372 }
1373 

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