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TOMOYO Linux Cross Reference
Linux/arch/x86/kernel/setup.c

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  1 /*
  2  *  Copyright (C) 1995  Linus Torvalds
  3  *
  4  *  Support of BIGMEM added by Gerhard Wichert, Siemens AG, July 1999
  5  *
  6  *  Memory region support
  7  *      David Parsons <orc@pell.chi.il.us>, July-August 1999
  8  *
  9  *  Added E820 sanitization routine (removes overlapping memory regions);
 10  *  Brian Moyle <bmoyle@mvista.com>, February 2001
 11  *
 12  * Moved CPU detection code to cpu/${cpu}.c
 13  *    Patrick Mochel <mochel@osdl.org>, March 2002
 14  *
 15  *  Provisions for empty E820 memory regions (reported by certain BIOSes).
 16  *  Alex Achenbach <xela@slit.de>, December 2002.
 17  *
 18  */
 19 
 20 /*
 21  * This file handles the architecture-dependent parts of initialization
 22  */
 23 
 24 #include <linux/sched.h>
 25 #include <linux/mm.h>
 26 #include <linux/mmzone.h>
 27 #include <linux/screen_info.h>
 28 #include <linux/ioport.h>
 29 #include <linux/acpi.h>
 30 #include <linux/sfi.h>
 31 #include <linux/apm_bios.h>
 32 #include <linux/initrd.h>
 33 #include <linux/bootmem.h>
 34 #include <linux/memblock.h>
 35 #include <linux/seq_file.h>
 36 #include <linux/console.h>
 37 #include <linux/root_dev.h>
 38 #include <linux/highmem.h>
 39 #include <linux/module.h>
 40 #include <linux/efi.h>
 41 #include <linux/init.h>
 42 #include <linux/edd.h>
 43 #include <linux/iscsi_ibft.h>
 44 #include <linux/nodemask.h>
 45 #include <linux/kexec.h>
 46 #include <linux/dmi.h>
 47 #include <linux/pfn.h>
 48 #include <linux/pci.h>
 49 #include <asm/pci-direct.h>
 50 #include <linux/init_ohci1394_dma.h>
 51 #include <linux/kvm_para.h>
 52 #include <linux/dma-contiguous.h>
 53 
 54 #include <linux/errno.h>
 55 #include <linux/kernel.h>
 56 #include <linux/stddef.h>
 57 #include <linux/unistd.h>
 58 #include <linux/ptrace.h>
 59 #include <linux/user.h>
 60 #include <linux/delay.h>
 61 
 62 #include <linux/kallsyms.h>
 63 #include <linux/cpufreq.h>
 64 #include <linux/dma-mapping.h>
 65 #include <linux/ctype.h>
 66 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
 67 
 68 #include <linux/percpu.h>
 69 #include <linux/crash_dump.h>
 70 #include <linux/tboot.h>
 71 #include <linux/jiffies.h>
 72 
 73 #include <video/edid.h>
 74 
 75 #include <asm/mtrr.h>
 76 #include <asm/apic.h>
 77 #include <asm/realmode.h>
 78 #include <asm/e820.h>
 79 #include <asm/mpspec.h>
 80 #include <asm/setup.h>
 81 #include <asm/efi.h>
 82 #include <asm/timer.h>
 83 #include <asm/i8259.h>
 84 #include <asm/sections.h>
 85 #include <asm/io_apic.h>
 86 #include <asm/ist.h>
 87 #include <asm/setup_arch.h>
 88 #include <asm/bios_ebda.h>
 89 #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
 90 #include <asm/processor.h>
 91 #include <asm/bugs.h>
 92 
 93 #include <asm/vsyscall.h>
 94 #include <asm/cpu.h>
 95 #include <asm/desc.h>
 96 #include <asm/dma.h>
 97 #include <asm/iommu.h>
 98 #include <asm/gart.h>
 99 #include <asm/mmu_context.h>
100 #include <asm/proto.h>
101 
102 #include <asm/paravirt.h>
103 #include <asm/hypervisor.h>
104 #include <asm/olpc_ofw.h>
105 
106 #include <asm/percpu.h>
107 #include <asm/topology.h>
108 #include <asm/apicdef.h>
109 #include <asm/amd_nb.h>
110 #include <asm/mce.h>
111 #include <asm/alternative.h>
112 #include <asm/prom.h>
113 
114 /*
115  * max_low_pfn_mapped: highest direct mapped pfn under 4GB
116  * max_pfn_mapped:     highest direct mapped pfn over 4GB
117  *
118  * The direct mapping only covers E820_RAM regions, so the ranges and gaps are
119  * represented by pfn_mapped
120  */
121 unsigned long max_low_pfn_mapped;
122 unsigned long max_pfn_mapped;
123 
124 #ifdef CONFIG_DMI
125 RESERVE_BRK(dmi_alloc, 65536);
126 #endif
127 
128 
129 static __initdata unsigned long _brk_start = (unsigned long)__brk_base;
130 unsigned long _brk_end = (unsigned long)__brk_base;
131 
132 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
133 int default_cpu_present_to_apicid(int mps_cpu)
134 {
135         return __default_cpu_present_to_apicid(mps_cpu);
136 }
137 
138 int default_check_phys_apicid_present(int phys_apicid)
139 {
140         return __default_check_phys_apicid_present(phys_apicid);
141 }
142 #endif
143 
144 struct boot_params boot_params;
145 
146 /*
147  * Machine setup..
148  */
149 static struct resource data_resource = {
150         .name   = "Kernel data",
151         .start  = 0,
152         .end    = 0,
153         .flags  = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
154 };
155 
156 static struct resource code_resource = {
157         .name   = "Kernel code",
158         .start  = 0,
159         .end    = 0,
160         .flags  = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
161 };
162 
163 static struct resource bss_resource = {
164         .name   = "Kernel bss",
165         .start  = 0,
166         .end    = 0,
167         .flags  = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
168 };
169 
170 
171 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
172 /* cpu data as detected by the assembly code in head.S */
173 struct cpuinfo_x86 new_cpu_data = {
174         .wp_works_ok = -1,
175 };
176 /* common cpu data for all cpus */
177 struct cpuinfo_x86 boot_cpu_data __read_mostly = {
178         .wp_works_ok = -1,
179 };
180 EXPORT_SYMBOL(boot_cpu_data);
181 
182 unsigned int def_to_bigsmp;
183 
184 /* for MCA, but anyone else can use it if they want */
185 unsigned int machine_id;
186 unsigned int machine_submodel_id;
187 unsigned int BIOS_revision;
188 
189 struct apm_info apm_info;
190 EXPORT_SYMBOL(apm_info);
191 
192 #if defined(CONFIG_X86_SPEEDSTEP_SMI) || \
193         defined(CONFIG_X86_SPEEDSTEP_SMI_MODULE)
194 struct ist_info ist_info;
195 EXPORT_SYMBOL(ist_info);
196 #else
197 struct ist_info ist_info;
198 #endif
199 
200 #else
201 struct cpuinfo_x86 boot_cpu_data __read_mostly = {
202         .x86_phys_bits = MAX_PHYSMEM_BITS,
203 };
204 EXPORT_SYMBOL(boot_cpu_data);
205 #endif
206 
207 
208 #if !defined(CONFIG_X86_PAE) || defined(CONFIG_X86_64)
209 __visible unsigned long mmu_cr4_features;
210 #else
211 __visible unsigned long mmu_cr4_features = X86_CR4_PAE;
212 #endif
213 
214 /* Boot loader ID and version as integers, for the benefit of proc_dointvec */
215 int bootloader_type, bootloader_version;
216 
217 /*
218  * Setup options
219  */
220 struct screen_info screen_info;
221 EXPORT_SYMBOL(screen_info);
222 struct edid_info edid_info;
223 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(edid_info);
224 
225 extern int root_mountflags;
226 
227 unsigned long saved_video_mode;
228 
229 #define RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK        0x07FF
230 #define RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG             0x8000
231 #define RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG               0x4000
232 
233 static char __initdata command_line[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE];
234 #ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_BOOL
235 static char __initdata builtin_cmdline[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE] = CONFIG_CMDLINE;
236 #endif
237 
238 #if defined(CONFIG_EDD) || defined(CONFIG_EDD_MODULE)
239 struct edd edd;
240 #ifdef CONFIG_EDD_MODULE
241 EXPORT_SYMBOL(edd);
242 #endif
243 /**
244  * copy_edd() - Copy the BIOS EDD information
245  *              from boot_params into a safe place.
246  *
247  */
248 static inline void __init copy_edd(void)
249 {
250      memcpy(edd.mbr_signature, boot_params.edd_mbr_sig_buffer,
251             sizeof(edd.mbr_signature));
252      memcpy(edd.edd_info, boot_params.eddbuf, sizeof(edd.edd_info));
253      edd.mbr_signature_nr = boot_params.edd_mbr_sig_buf_entries;
254      edd.edd_info_nr = boot_params.eddbuf_entries;
255 }
256 #else
257 static inline void __init copy_edd(void)
258 {
259 }
260 #endif
261 
262 void * __init extend_brk(size_t size, size_t align)
263 {
264         size_t mask = align - 1;
265         void *ret;
266 
267         BUG_ON(_brk_start == 0);
268         BUG_ON(align & mask);
269 
270         _brk_end = (_brk_end + mask) & ~mask;
271         BUG_ON((char *)(_brk_end + size) > __brk_limit);
272 
273         ret = (void *)_brk_end;
274         _brk_end += size;
275 
276         memset(ret, 0, size);
277 
278         return ret;
279 }
280 
281 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
282 static void __init cleanup_highmap(void)
283 {
284 }
285 #endif
286 
287 static void __init reserve_brk(void)
288 {
289         if (_brk_end > _brk_start)
290                 memblock_reserve(__pa_symbol(_brk_start),
291                                  _brk_end - _brk_start);
292 
293         /* Mark brk area as locked down and no longer taking any
294            new allocations */
295         _brk_start = 0;
296 }
297 
298 #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD
299 
300 static u64 __init get_ramdisk_image(void)
301 {
302         u64 ramdisk_image = boot_params.hdr.ramdisk_image;
303 
304         ramdisk_image |= (u64)boot_params.ext_ramdisk_image << 32;
305 
306         return ramdisk_image;
307 }
308 static u64 __init get_ramdisk_size(void)
309 {
310         u64 ramdisk_size = boot_params.hdr.ramdisk_size;
311 
312         ramdisk_size |= (u64)boot_params.ext_ramdisk_size << 32;
313 
314         return ramdisk_size;
315 }
316 
317 #define MAX_MAP_CHUNK   (NR_FIX_BTMAPS << PAGE_SHIFT)
318 static void __init relocate_initrd(void)
319 {
320         /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
321         u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
322         u64 ramdisk_size  = get_ramdisk_size();
323         u64 area_size     = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_size);
324         u64 ramdisk_here;
325         unsigned long slop, clen, mapaddr;
326         char *p, *q;
327 
328         /* We need to move the initrd down into directly mapped mem */
329         ramdisk_here = memblock_find_in_range(0, PFN_PHYS(max_pfn_mapped),
330                                                  area_size, PAGE_SIZE);
331 
332         if (!ramdisk_here)
333                 panic("Cannot find place for new RAMDISK of size %lld\n",
334                          ramdisk_size);
335 
336         /* Note: this includes all the mem currently occupied by
337            the initrd, we rely on that fact to keep the data intact. */
338         memblock_reserve(ramdisk_here, area_size);
339         initrd_start = ramdisk_here + PAGE_OFFSET;
340         initrd_end   = initrd_start + ramdisk_size;
341         printk(KERN_INFO "Allocated new RAMDISK: [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n",
342                          ramdisk_here, ramdisk_here + ramdisk_size - 1);
343 
344         q = (char *)initrd_start;
345 
346         /* Copy the initrd */
347         while (ramdisk_size) {
348                 slop = ramdisk_image & ~PAGE_MASK;
349                 clen = ramdisk_size;
350                 if (clen > MAX_MAP_CHUNK-slop)
351                         clen = MAX_MAP_CHUNK-slop;
352                 mapaddr = ramdisk_image & PAGE_MASK;
353                 p = early_memremap(mapaddr, clen+slop);
354                 memcpy(q, p+slop, clen);
355                 early_iounmap(p, clen+slop);
356                 q += clen;
357                 ramdisk_image += clen;
358                 ramdisk_size  -= clen;
359         }
360 
361         ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
362         ramdisk_size  = get_ramdisk_size();
363         printk(KERN_INFO "Move RAMDISK from [mem %#010llx-%#010llx] to"
364                 " [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n",
365                 ramdisk_image, ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size - 1,
366                 ramdisk_here, ramdisk_here + ramdisk_size - 1);
367 }
368 
369 static void __init early_reserve_initrd(void)
370 {
371         /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
372         u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
373         u64 ramdisk_size  = get_ramdisk_size();
374         u64 ramdisk_end   = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size);
375 
376         if (!boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader ||
377             !ramdisk_image || !ramdisk_size)
378                 return;         /* No initrd provided by bootloader */
379 
380         memblock_reserve(ramdisk_image, ramdisk_end - ramdisk_image);
381 }
382 static void __init reserve_initrd(void)
383 {
384         /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
385         u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
386         u64 ramdisk_size  = get_ramdisk_size();
387         u64 ramdisk_end   = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size);
388         u64 mapped_size;
389 
390         if (!boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader ||
391             !ramdisk_image || !ramdisk_size)
392                 return;         /* No initrd provided by bootloader */
393 
394         initrd_start = 0;
395 
396         mapped_size = memblock_mem_size(max_pfn_mapped);
397         if (ramdisk_size >= (mapped_size>>1))
398                 panic("initrd too large to handle, "
399                        "disabling initrd (%lld needed, %lld available)\n",
400                        ramdisk_size, mapped_size>>1);
401 
402         printk(KERN_INFO "RAMDISK: [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n", ramdisk_image,
403                         ramdisk_end - 1);
404 
405         if (pfn_range_is_mapped(PFN_DOWN(ramdisk_image),
406                                 PFN_DOWN(ramdisk_end))) {
407                 /* All are mapped, easy case */
408                 initrd_start = ramdisk_image + PAGE_OFFSET;
409                 initrd_end = initrd_start + ramdisk_size;
410                 return;
411         }
412 
413         relocate_initrd();
414 
415         memblock_free(ramdisk_image, ramdisk_end - ramdisk_image);
416 }
417 #else
418 static void __init early_reserve_initrd(void)
419 {
420 }
421 static void __init reserve_initrd(void)
422 {
423 }
424 #endif /* CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD */
425 
426 static void __init parse_setup_data(void)
427 {
428         struct setup_data *data;
429         u64 pa_data, pa_next;
430 
431         pa_data = boot_params.hdr.setup_data;
432         while (pa_data) {
433                 u32 data_len, map_len, data_type;
434 
435                 map_len = max(PAGE_SIZE - (pa_data & ~PAGE_MASK),
436                               (u64)sizeof(struct setup_data));
437                 data = early_memremap(pa_data, map_len);
438                 data_len = data->len + sizeof(struct setup_data);
439                 data_type = data->type;
440                 pa_next = data->next;
441                 early_iounmap(data, map_len);
442 
443                 switch (data_type) {
444                 case SETUP_E820_EXT:
445                         parse_e820_ext(pa_data, data_len);
446                         break;
447                 case SETUP_DTB:
448                         add_dtb(pa_data);
449                         break;
450                 default:
451                         break;
452                 }
453                 pa_data = pa_next;
454         }
455 }
456 
457 static void __init e820_reserve_setup_data(void)
458 {
459         struct setup_data *data;
460         u64 pa_data;
461         int found = 0;
462 
463         pa_data = boot_params.hdr.setup_data;
464         while (pa_data) {
465                 data = early_memremap(pa_data, sizeof(*data));
466                 e820_update_range(pa_data, sizeof(*data)+data->len,
467                          E820_RAM, E820_RESERVED_KERN);
468                 found = 1;
469                 pa_data = data->next;
470                 early_iounmap(data, sizeof(*data));
471         }
472         if (!found)
473                 return;
474 
475         sanitize_e820_map(e820.map, ARRAY_SIZE(e820.map), &e820.nr_map);
476         memcpy(&e820_saved, &e820, sizeof(struct e820map));
477         printk(KERN_INFO "extended physical RAM map:\n");
478         e820_print_map("reserve setup_data");
479 }
480 
481 static void __init memblock_x86_reserve_range_setup_data(void)
482 {
483         struct setup_data *data;
484         u64 pa_data;
485 
486         pa_data = boot_params.hdr.setup_data;
487         while (pa_data) {
488                 data = early_memremap(pa_data, sizeof(*data));
489                 memblock_reserve(pa_data, sizeof(*data) + data->len);
490                 pa_data = data->next;
491                 early_iounmap(data, sizeof(*data));
492         }
493 }
494 
495 /*
496  * --------- Crashkernel reservation ------------------------------
497  */
498 
499 #ifdef CONFIG_KEXEC
500 
501 /*
502  * Keep the crash kernel below this limit.  On 32 bits earlier kernels
503  * would limit the kernel to the low 512 MiB due to mapping restrictions.
504  * On 64bit, old kexec-tools need to under 896MiB.
505  */
506 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
507 # define CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_LOW_MAX      (512 << 20)
508 # define CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_HIGH_MAX     (512 << 20)
509 #else
510 # define CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_LOW_MAX      (896UL<<20)
511 # define CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_HIGH_MAX     MAXMEM
512 #endif
513 
514 static int __init reserve_crashkernel_low(void)
515 {
516 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
517         const unsigned long long alignment = 16<<20;    /* 16M */
518         unsigned long long low_base = 0, low_size = 0;
519         unsigned long total_low_mem;
520         unsigned long long base;
521         bool auto_set = false;
522         int ret;
523 
524         total_low_mem = memblock_mem_size(1UL<<(32-PAGE_SHIFT));
525         /* crashkernel=Y,low */
526         ret = parse_crashkernel_low(boot_command_line, total_low_mem,
527                                                 &low_size, &base);
528         if (ret != 0) {
529                 /*
530                  * two parts from lib/swiotlb.c:
531                  *      swiotlb size: user specified with swiotlb= or default.
532                  *      swiotlb overflow buffer: now is hardcoded to 32k.
533                  *              We round it to 8M for other buffers that
534                  *              may need to stay low too.
535                  */
536                 low_size = swiotlb_size_or_default() + (8UL<<20);
537                 auto_set = true;
538         } else {
539                 /* passed with crashkernel=0,low ? */
540                 if (!low_size)
541                         return 0;
542         }
543 
544         low_base = memblock_find_in_range(low_size, (1ULL<<32),
545                                         low_size, alignment);
546 
547         if (!low_base) {
548                 pr_err("Cannot reserve %ldMB crashkernel low memory, please try smaller size.\n",
549                        (unsigned long)(low_size >> 20));
550                 return -ENOMEM;
551         }
552 
553         memblock_reserve(low_base, low_size);
554         pr_info("Reserving %ldMB of low memory at %ldMB for crashkernel (System low RAM: %ldMB)\n",
555                         (unsigned long)(low_size >> 20),
556                         (unsigned long)(low_base >> 20),
557                         (unsigned long)(total_low_mem >> 20));
558         crashk_low_res.start = low_base;
559         crashk_low_res.end   = low_base + low_size - 1;
560         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &crashk_low_res);
561 #endif
562         return 0;
563 }
564 
565 static void __init reserve_crashkernel(void)
566 {
567         const unsigned long long alignment = 16<<20;    /* 16M */
568         unsigned long long total_mem;
569         unsigned long long crash_size, crash_base;
570         bool high = false;
571         int ret;
572 
573         total_mem = memblock_phys_mem_size();
574 
575         /* crashkernel=XM */
576         ret = parse_crashkernel(boot_command_line, total_mem,
577                         &crash_size, &crash_base);
578         if (ret != 0 || crash_size <= 0) {
579                 /* crashkernel=X,high */
580                 ret = parse_crashkernel_high(boot_command_line, total_mem,
581                                 &crash_size, &crash_base);
582                 if (ret != 0 || crash_size <= 0)
583                         return;
584                 high = true;
585         }
586 
587         /* 0 means: find the address automatically */
588         if (crash_base <= 0) {
589                 /*
590                  *  kexec want bzImage is below CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_MAX
591                  */
592                 crash_base = memblock_find_in_range(alignment,
593                                         high ? CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_HIGH_MAX :
594                                                CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_LOW_MAX,
595                                         crash_size, alignment);
596 
597                 if (!crash_base) {
598                         pr_info("crashkernel reservation failed - No suitable area found.\n");
599                         return;
600                 }
601 
602         } else {
603                 unsigned long long start;
604 
605                 start = memblock_find_in_range(crash_base,
606                                  crash_base + crash_size, crash_size, 1<<20);
607                 if (start != crash_base) {
608                         pr_info("crashkernel reservation failed - memory is in use.\n");
609                         return;
610                 }
611         }
612         memblock_reserve(crash_base, crash_size);
613 
614         if (crash_base >= (1ULL << 32) && reserve_crashkernel_low()) {
615                 memblock_free(crash_base, crash_size);
616                 return;
617         }
618 
619         printk(KERN_INFO "Reserving %ldMB of memory at %ldMB "
620                         "for crashkernel (System RAM: %ldMB)\n",
621                         (unsigned long)(crash_size >> 20),
622                         (unsigned long)(crash_base >> 20),
623                         (unsigned long)(total_mem >> 20));
624 
625         crashk_res.start = crash_base;
626         crashk_res.end   = crash_base + crash_size - 1;
627         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &crashk_res);
628 }
629 #else
630 static void __init reserve_crashkernel(void)
631 {
632 }
633 #endif
634 
635 static struct resource standard_io_resources[] = {
636         { .name = "dma1", .start = 0x00, .end = 0x1f,
637                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
638         { .name = "pic1", .start = 0x20, .end = 0x21,
639                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
640         { .name = "timer0", .start = 0x40, .end = 0x43,
641                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
642         { .name = "timer1", .start = 0x50, .end = 0x53,
643                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
644         { .name = "keyboard", .start = 0x60, .end = 0x60,
645                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
646         { .name = "keyboard", .start = 0x64, .end = 0x64,
647                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
648         { .name = "dma page reg", .start = 0x80, .end = 0x8f,
649                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
650         { .name = "pic2", .start = 0xa0, .end = 0xa1,
651                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
652         { .name = "dma2", .start = 0xc0, .end = 0xdf,
653                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
654         { .name = "fpu", .start = 0xf0, .end = 0xff,
655                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO }
656 };
657 
658 void __init reserve_standard_io_resources(void)
659 {
660         int i;
661 
662         /* request I/O space for devices used on all i[345]86 PCs */
663         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(standard_io_resources); i++)
664                 request_resource(&ioport_resource, &standard_io_resources[i]);
665 
666 }
667 
668 static __init void reserve_ibft_region(void)
669 {
670         unsigned long addr, size = 0;
671 
672         addr = find_ibft_region(&size);
673 
674         if (size)
675                 memblock_reserve(addr, size);
676 }
677 
678 static bool __init snb_gfx_workaround_needed(void)
679 {
680 #ifdef CONFIG_PCI
681         int i;
682         u16 vendor, devid;
683         static const __initconst u16 snb_ids[] = {
684                 0x0102,
685                 0x0112,
686                 0x0122,
687                 0x0106,
688                 0x0116,
689                 0x0126,
690                 0x010a,
691         };
692 
693         /* Assume no if something weird is going on with PCI */
694         if (!early_pci_allowed())
695                 return false;
696 
697         vendor = read_pci_config_16(0, 2, 0, PCI_VENDOR_ID);
698         if (vendor != 0x8086)
699                 return false;
700 
701         devid = read_pci_config_16(0, 2, 0, PCI_DEVICE_ID);
702         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(snb_ids); i++)
703                 if (devid == snb_ids[i])
704                         return true;
705 #endif
706 
707         return false;
708 }
709 
710 /*
711  * Sandy Bridge graphics has trouble with certain ranges, exclude
712  * them from allocation.
713  */
714 static void __init trim_snb_memory(void)
715 {
716         static const __initconst unsigned long bad_pages[] = {
717                 0x20050000,
718                 0x20110000,
719                 0x20130000,
720                 0x20138000,
721                 0x40004000,
722         };
723         int i;
724 
725         if (!snb_gfx_workaround_needed())
726                 return;
727 
728         printk(KERN_DEBUG "reserving inaccessible SNB gfx pages\n");
729 
730         /*
731          * Reserve all memory below the 1 MB mark that has not
732          * already been reserved.
733          */
734         memblock_reserve(0, 1<<20);
735         
736         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(bad_pages); i++) {
737                 if (memblock_reserve(bad_pages[i], PAGE_SIZE))
738                         printk(KERN_WARNING "failed to reserve 0x%08lx\n",
739                                bad_pages[i]);
740         }
741 }
742 
743 /*
744  * Here we put platform-specific memory range workarounds, i.e.
745  * memory known to be corrupt or otherwise in need to be reserved on
746  * specific platforms.
747  *
748  * If this gets used more widely it could use a real dispatch mechanism.
749  */
750 static void __init trim_platform_memory_ranges(void)
751 {
752         trim_snb_memory();
753 }
754 
755 static void __init trim_bios_range(void)
756 {
757         /*
758          * A special case is the first 4Kb of memory;
759          * This is a BIOS owned area, not kernel ram, but generally
760          * not listed as such in the E820 table.
761          *
762          * This typically reserves additional memory (64KiB by default)
763          * since some BIOSes are known to corrupt low memory.  See the
764          * Kconfig help text for X86_RESERVE_LOW.
765          */
766         e820_update_range(0, PAGE_SIZE, E820_RAM, E820_RESERVED);
767 
768         /*
769          * special case: Some BIOSen report the PC BIOS
770          * area (640->1Mb) as ram even though it is not.
771          * take them out.
772          */
773         e820_remove_range(BIOS_BEGIN, BIOS_END - BIOS_BEGIN, E820_RAM, 1);
774 
775         sanitize_e820_map(e820.map, ARRAY_SIZE(e820.map), &e820.nr_map);
776 }
777 
778 /* called before trim_bios_range() to spare extra sanitize */
779 static void __init e820_add_kernel_range(void)
780 {
781         u64 start = __pa_symbol(_text);
782         u64 size = __pa_symbol(_end) - start;
783 
784         /*
785          * Complain if .text .data and .bss are not marked as E820_RAM and
786          * attempt to fix it by adding the range. We may have a confused BIOS,
787          * or the user may have used memmap=exactmap or memmap=xxM$yyM to
788          * exclude kernel range. If we really are running on top non-RAM,
789          * we will crash later anyways.
790          */
791         if (e820_all_mapped(start, start + size, E820_RAM))
792                 return;
793 
794         pr_warn(".text .data .bss are not marked as E820_RAM!\n");
795         e820_remove_range(start, size, E820_RAM, 0);
796         e820_add_region(start, size, E820_RAM);
797 }
798 
799 static unsigned reserve_low = CONFIG_X86_RESERVE_LOW << 10;
800 
801 static int __init parse_reservelow(char *p)
802 {
803         unsigned long long size;
804 
805         if (!p)
806                 return -EINVAL;
807 
808         size = memparse(p, &p);
809 
810         if (size < 4096)
811                 size = 4096;
812 
813         if (size > 640*1024)
814                 size = 640*1024;
815 
816         reserve_low = size;
817 
818         return 0;
819 }
820 
821 early_param("reservelow", parse_reservelow);
822 
823 static void __init trim_low_memory_range(void)
824 {
825         memblock_reserve(0, ALIGN(reserve_low, PAGE_SIZE));
826 }
827         
828 /*
829  * Determine if we were loaded by an EFI loader.  If so, then we have also been
830  * passed the efi memmap, systab, etc., so we should use these data structures
831  * for initialization.  Note, the efi init code path is determined by the
832  * global efi_enabled. This allows the same kernel image to be used on existing
833  * systems (with a traditional BIOS) as well as on EFI systems.
834  */
835 /*
836  * setup_arch - architecture-specific boot-time initializations
837  *
838  * Note: On x86_64, fixmaps are ready for use even before this is called.
839  */
840 
841 void __init setup_arch(char **cmdline_p)
842 {
843         memblock_reserve(__pa_symbol(_text),
844                          (unsigned long)__bss_stop - (unsigned long)_text);
845 
846         early_reserve_initrd();
847 
848         /*
849          * At this point everything still needed from the boot loader
850          * or BIOS or kernel text should be early reserved or marked not
851          * RAM in e820. All other memory is free game.
852          */
853 
854 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
855         memcpy(&boot_cpu_data, &new_cpu_data, sizeof(new_cpu_data));
856         visws_early_detect();
857 
858         /*
859          * copy kernel address range established so far and switch
860          * to the proper swapper page table
861          */
862         clone_pgd_range(swapper_pg_dir     + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
863                         initial_page_table + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
864                         KERNEL_PGD_PTRS);
865 
866         load_cr3(swapper_pg_dir);
867         __flush_tlb_all();
868 #else
869         printk(KERN_INFO "Command line: %s\n", boot_command_line);
870 #endif
871 
872         /*
873          * If we have OLPC OFW, we might end up relocating the fixmap due to
874          * reserve_top(), so do this before touching the ioremap area.
875          */
876         olpc_ofw_detect();
877 
878         early_trap_init();
879         early_cpu_init();
880         early_ioremap_init();
881 
882         setup_olpc_ofw_pgd();
883 
884         ROOT_DEV = old_decode_dev(boot_params.hdr.root_dev);
885         screen_info = boot_params.screen_info;
886         edid_info = boot_params.edid_info;
887 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
888         apm_info.bios = boot_params.apm_bios_info;
889         ist_info = boot_params.ist_info;
890         if (boot_params.sys_desc_table.length != 0) {
891                 machine_id = boot_params.sys_desc_table.table[0];
892                 machine_submodel_id = boot_params.sys_desc_table.table[1];
893                 BIOS_revision = boot_params.sys_desc_table.table[2];
894         }
895 #endif
896         saved_video_mode = boot_params.hdr.vid_mode;
897         bootloader_type = boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader;
898         if ((bootloader_type >> 4) == 0xe) {
899                 bootloader_type &= 0xf;
900                 bootloader_type |= (boot_params.hdr.ext_loader_type+0x10) << 4;
901         }
902         bootloader_version  = bootloader_type & 0xf;
903         bootloader_version |= boot_params.hdr.ext_loader_ver << 4;
904 
905 #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
906         rd_image_start = boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK;
907         rd_prompt = ((boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG) != 0);
908         rd_doload = ((boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG) != 0);
909 #endif
910 #ifdef CONFIG_EFI
911         if (!strncmp((char *)&boot_params.efi_info.efi_loader_signature,
912                      "EL32", 4)) {
913                 set_bit(EFI_BOOT, &x86_efi_facility);
914         } else if (!strncmp((char *)&boot_params.efi_info.efi_loader_signature,
915                      "EL64", 4)) {
916                 set_bit(EFI_BOOT, &x86_efi_facility);
917                 set_bit(EFI_64BIT, &x86_efi_facility);
918         }
919 
920         if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
921                 efi_memblock_x86_reserve_range();
922 #endif
923 
924         x86_init.oem.arch_setup();
925 
926         iomem_resource.end = (1ULL << boot_cpu_data.x86_phys_bits) - 1;
927         setup_memory_map();
928         parse_setup_data();
929         /* update the e820_saved too */
930         e820_reserve_setup_data();
931 
932         copy_edd();
933 
934         if (!boot_params.hdr.root_flags)
935                 root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
936         init_mm.start_code = (unsigned long) _text;
937         init_mm.end_code = (unsigned long) _etext;
938         init_mm.end_data = (unsigned long) _edata;
939         init_mm.brk = _brk_end;
940 
941         code_resource.start = __pa_symbol(_text);
942         code_resource.end = __pa_symbol(_etext)-1;
943         data_resource.start = __pa_symbol(_etext);
944         data_resource.end = __pa_symbol(_edata)-1;
945         bss_resource.start = __pa_symbol(__bss_start);
946         bss_resource.end = __pa_symbol(__bss_stop)-1;
947 
948 #ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_BOOL
949 #ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_OVERRIDE
950         strlcpy(boot_command_line, builtin_cmdline, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
951 #else
952         if (builtin_cmdline[0]) {
953                 /* append boot loader cmdline to builtin */
954                 strlcat(builtin_cmdline, " ", COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
955                 strlcat(builtin_cmdline, boot_command_line, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
956                 strlcpy(boot_command_line, builtin_cmdline, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
957         }
958 #endif
959 #endif
960 
961         strlcpy(command_line, boot_command_line, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
962         *cmdline_p = command_line;
963 
964         /*
965          * x86_configure_nx() is called before parse_early_param() to detect
966          * whether hardware doesn't support NX (so that the early EHCI debug
967          * console setup can safely call set_fixmap()). It may then be called
968          * again from within noexec_setup() during parsing early parameters
969          * to honor the respective command line option.
970          */
971         x86_configure_nx();
972 
973         parse_early_param();
974 
975         x86_report_nx();
976 
977         /* after early param, so could get panic from serial */
978         memblock_x86_reserve_range_setup_data();
979 
980         if (acpi_mps_check()) {
981 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC
982                 disable_apic = 1;
983 #endif
984                 setup_clear_cpu_cap(X86_FEATURE_APIC);
985         }
986 
987 #ifdef CONFIG_PCI
988         if (pci_early_dump_regs)
989                 early_dump_pci_devices();
990 #endif
991 
992         finish_e820_parsing();
993 
994         if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
995                 efi_init();
996 
997         dmi_scan_machine();
998         dmi_set_dump_stack_arch_desc();
999 
1000         /*
1001          * VMware detection requires dmi to be available, so this
1002          * needs to be done after dmi_scan_machine, for the BP.
1003          */
1004         init_hypervisor_platform();
1005 
1006         x86_init.resources.probe_roms();
1007 
1008         /* after parse_early_param, so could debug it */
1009         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &code_resource);
1010         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &data_resource);
1011         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &bss_resource);
1012 
1013         e820_add_kernel_range();
1014         trim_bios_range();
1015 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1016         if (ppro_with_ram_bug()) {
1017                 e820_update_range(0x70000000ULL, 0x40000ULL, E820_RAM,
1018                                   E820_RESERVED);
1019                 sanitize_e820_map(e820.map, ARRAY_SIZE(e820.map), &e820.nr_map);
1020                 printk(KERN_INFO "fixed physical RAM map:\n");
1021                 e820_print_map("bad_ppro");
1022         }
1023 #else
1024         early_gart_iommu_check();
1025 #endif
1026 
1027         /*
1028          * partially used pages are not usable - thus
1029          * we are rounding upwards:
1030          */
1031         max_pfn = e820_end_of_ram_pfn();
1032 
1033         /* update e820 for memory not covered by WB MTRRs */
1034         mtrr_bp_init();
1035         if (mtrr_trim_uncached_memory(max_pfn))
1036                 max_pfn = e820_end_of_ram_pfn();
1037 
1038 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1039         /* max_low_pfn get updated here */
1040         find_low_pfn_range();
1041 #else
1042         check_x2apic();
1043 
1044         /* How many end-of-memory variables you have, grandma! */
1045         /* need this before calling reserve_initrd */
1046         if (max_pfn > (1UL<<(32 - PAGE_SHIFT)))
1047                 max_low_pfn = e820_end_of_low_ram_pfn();
1048         else
1049                 max_low_pfn = max_pfn;
1050 
1051         high_memory = (void *)__va(max_pfn * PAGE_SIZE - 1) + 1;
1052 #endif
1053 
1054         /*
1055          * Find and reserve possible boot-time SMP configuration:
1056          */
1057         find_smp_config();
1058 
1059         reserve_ibft_region();
1060 
1061         early_alloc_pgt_buf();
1062 
1063         /*
1064          * Need to conclude brk, before memblock_x86_fill()
1065          *  it could use memblock_find_in_range, could overlap with
1066          *  brk area.
1067          */
1068         reserve_brk();
1069 
1070         cleanup_highmap();
1071 
1072         memblock_set_current_limit(ISA_END_ADDRESS);
1073         memblock_x86_fill();
1074 
1075         /*
1076          * The EFI specification says that boot service code won't be called
1077          * after ExitBootServices(). This is, in fact, a lie.
1078          */
1079         if (efi_enabled(EFI_MEMMAP))
1080                 efi_reserve_boot_services();
1081 
1082         /* preallocate 4k for mptable mpc */
1083         early_reserve_e820_mpc_new();
1084 
1085 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_CHECK_BIOS_CORRUPTION
1086         setup_bios_corruption_check();
1087 #endif
1088 
1089 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1090         printk(KERN_DEBUG "initial memory mapped: [mem 0x00000000-%#010lx]\n",
1091                         (max_pfn_mapped<<PAGE_SHIFT) - 1);
1092 #endif
1093 
1094         reserve_real_mode();
1095 
1096         trim_platform_memory_ranges();
1097         trim_low_memory_range();
1098 
1099         init_mem_mapping();
1100 
1101         early_trap_pf_init();
1102 
1103         setup_real_mode();
1104 
1105         memblock_set_current_limit(get_max_mapped());
1106         dma_contiguous_reserve(0);
1107 
1108         /*
1109          * NOTE: On x86-32, only from this point on, fixmaps are ready for use.
1110          */
1111 
1112 #ifdef CONFIG_PROVIDE_OHCI1394_DMA_INIT
1113         if (init_ohci1394_dma_early)
1114                 init_ohci1394_dma_on_all_controllers();
1115 #endif
1116         /* Allocate bigger log buffer */
1117         setup_log_buf(1);
1118 
1119         reserve_initrd();
1120 
1121 #if defined(CONFIG_ACPI) && defined(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD)
1122         acpi_initrd_override((void *)initrd_start, initrd_end - initrd_start);
1123 #endif
1124 
1125         reserve_crashkernel();
1126 
1127         vsmp_init();
1128 
1129         io_delay_init();
1130 
1131         /*
1132          * Parse the ACPI tables for possible boot-time SMP configuration.
1133          */
1134         acpi_boot_table_init();
1135 
1136         early_acpi_boot_init();
1137 
1138         initmem_init();
1139         memblock_find_dma_reserve();
1140 
1141 #ifdef CONFIG_KVM_GUEST
1142         kvmclock_init();
1143 #endif
1144 
1145         x86_init.paging.pagetable_init();
1146 
1147         if (boot_cpu_data.cpuid_level >= 0) {
1148                 /* A CPU has %cr4 if and only if it has CPUID */
1149                 mmu_cr4_features = read_cr4();
1150                 if (trampoline_cr4_features)
1151                         *trampoline_cr4_features = mmu_cr4_features;
1152         }
1153 
1154 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1155         /* sync back kernel address range */
1156         clone_pgd_range(initial_page_table + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
1157                         swapper_pg_dir     + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
1158                         KERNEL_PGD_PTRS);
1159 
1160         /*
1161          * sync back low identity map too.  It is used for example
1162          * in the 32-bit EFI stub.
1163          */
1164         clone_pgd_range(initial_page_table,
1165                         swapper_pg_dir     + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
1166                         min(KERNEL_PGD_PTRS, KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY));
1167 #endif
1168 
1169         tboot_probe();
1170 
1171 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
1172         map_vsyscall();
1173 #endif
1174 
1175         generic_apic_probe();
1176 
1177         early_quirks();
1178 
1179         /*
1180          * Read APIC and some other early information from ACPI tables.
1181          */
1182         acpi_boot_init();
1183         sfi_init();
1184         x86_dtb_init();
1185 
1186         /*
1187          * get boot-time SMP configuration:
1188          */
1189         if (smp_found_config)
1190                 get_smp_config();
1191 
1192         prefill_possible_map();
1193 
1194         init_cpu_to_node();
1195 
1196         init_apic_mappings();
1197         if (x86_io_apic_ops.init)
1198                 x86_io_apic_ops.init();
1199 
1200         kvm_guest_init();
1201 
1202         e820_reserve_resources();
1203         e820_mark_nosave_regions(max_low_pfn);
1204 
1205         x86_init.resources.reserve_resources();
1206 
1207         e820_setup_gap();
1208 
1209 #ifdef CONFIG_VT
1210 #if defined(CONFIG_VGA_CONSOLE)
1211         if (!efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT) || (efi_mem_type(0xa0000) != EFI_CONVENTIONAL_MEMORY))
1212                 conswitchp = &vga_con;
1213 #elif defined(CONFIG_DUMMY_CONSOLE)
1214         conswitchp = &dummy_con;
1215 #endif
1216 #endif
1217         x86_init.oem.banner();
1218 
1219         x86_init.timers.wallclock_init();
1220 
1221         mcheck_init();
1222 
1223         arch_init_ideal_nops();
1224 
1225         register_refined_jiffies(CLOCK_TICK_RATE);
1226 
1227 #ifdef CONFIG_EFI
1228         /* Once setup is done above, unmap the EFI memory map on
1229          * mismatched firmware/kernel archtectures since there is no
1230          * support for runtime services.
1231          */
1232         if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT) && !efi_is_native()) {
1233                 pr_info("efi: Setup done, disabling due to 32/64-bit mismatch\n");
1234                 efi_unmap_memmap();
1235         }
1236 #endif
1237 }
1238 
1239 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1240 
1241 static struct resource video_ram_resource = {
1242         .name   = "Video RAM area",
1243         .start  = 0xa0000,
1244         .end    = 0xbffff,
1245         .flags  = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
1246 };
1247 
1248 void __init i386_reserve_resources(void)
1249 {
1250         request_resource(&iomem_resource, &video_ram_resource);
1251         reserve_standard_io_resources();
1252 }
1253 
1254 #endif /* CONFIG_X86_32 */
1255 

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