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TOMOYO Linux Cross Reference
Linux/include/linux/kernel.h

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  1 /* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
  2 #ifndef _LINUX_KERNEL_H
  3 #define _LINUX_KERNEL_H
  4 
  5 
  6 #include <stdarg.h>
  7 #include <linux/linkage.h>
  8 #include <linux/stddef.h>
  9 #include <linux/types.h>
 10 #include <linux/compiler.h>
 11 #include <linux/bitops.h>
 12 #include <linux/log2.h>
 13 #include <linux/typecheck.h>
 14 #include <linux/printk.h>
 15 #include <linux/build_bug.h>
 16 #include <asm/byteorder.h>
 17 #include <uapi/linux/kernel.h>
 18 
 19 #define USHRT_MAX       ((u16)(~0U))
 20 #define SHRT_MAX        ((s16)(USHRT_MAX>>1))
 21 #define SHRT_MIN        ((s16)(-SHRT_MAX - 1))
 22 #define INT_MAX         ((int)(~0U>>1))
 23 #define INT_MIN         (-INT_MAX - 1)
 24 #define UINT_MAX        (~0U)
 25 #define LONG_MAX        ((long)(~0UL>>1))
 26 #define LONG_MIN        (-LONG_MAX - 1)
 27 #define ULONG_MAX       (~0UL)
 28 #define LLONG_MAX       ((long long)(~0ULL>>1))
 29 #define LLONG_MIN       (-LLONG_MAX - 1)
 30 #define ULLONG_MAX      (~0ULL)
 31 #define SIZE_MAX        (~(size_t)0)
 32 
 33 #define U8_MAX          ((u8)~0U)
 34 #define S8_MAX          ((s8)(U8_MAX>>1))
 35 #define S8_MIN          ((s8)(-S8_MAX - 1))
 36 #define U16_MAX         ((u16)~0U)
 37 #define S16_MAX         ((s16)(U16_MAX>>1))
 38 #define S16_MIN         ((s16)(-S16_MAX - 1))
 39 #define U32_MAX         ((u32)~0U)
 40 #define S32_MAX         ((s32)(U32_MAX>>1))
 41 #define S32_MIN         ((s32)(-S32_MAX - 1))
 42 #define U64_MAX         ((u64)~0ULL)
 43 #define S64_MAX         ((s64)(U64_MAX>>1))
 44 #define S64_MIN         ((s64)(-S64_MAX - 1))
 45 
 46 #define STACK_MAGIC     0xdeadbeef
 47 
 48 /**
 49  * REPEAT_BYTE - repeat the value @x multiple times as an unsigned long value
 50  * @x: value to repeat
 51  *
 52  * NOTE: @x is not checked for > 0xff; larger values produce odd results.
 53  */
 54 #define REPEAT_BYTE(x)  ((~0ul / 0xff) * (x))
 55 
 56 /* @a is a power of 2 value */
 57 #define ALIGN(x, a)             __ALIGN_KERNEL((x), (a))
 58 #define ALIGN_DOWN(x, a)        __ALIGN_KERNEL((x) - ((a) - 1), (a))
 59 #define __ALIGN_MASK(x, mask)   __ALIGN_KERNEL_MASK((x), (mask))
 60 #define PTR_ALIGN(p, a)         ((typeof(p))ALIGN((unsigned long)(p), (a)))
 61 #define IS_ALIGNED(x, a)                (((x) & ((typeof(x))(a) - 1)) == 0)
 62 
 63 /* generic data direction definitions */
 64 #define READ                    0
 65 #define WRITE                   1
 66 
 67 /**
 68  * ARRAY_SIZE - get the number of elements in array @arr
 69  * @arr: array to be sized
 70  */
 71 #define ARRAY_SIZE(arr) (sizeof(arr) / sizeof((arr)[0]) + __must_be_array(arr))
 72 
 73 #define u64_to_user_ptr(x) (            \
 74 {                                       \
 75         typecheck(u64, x);              \
 76         (void __user *)(uintptr_t)x;    \
 77 }                                       \
 78 )
 79 
 80 /*
 81  * This looks more complex than it should be. But we need to
 82  * get the type for the ~ right in round_down (it needs to be
 83  * as wide as the result!), and we want to evaluate the macro
 84  * arguments just once each.
 85  */
 86 #define __round_mask(x, y) ((__typeof__(x))((y)-1))
 87 #define round_up(x, y) ((((x)-1) | __round_mask(x, y))+1)
 88 #define round_down(x, y) ((x) & ~__round_mask(x, y))
 89 
 90 /**
 91  * FIELD_SIZEOF - get the size of a struct's field
 92  * @t: the target struct
 93  * @f: the target struct's field
 94  * Return: the size of @f in the struct definition without having a
 95  * declared instance of @t.
 96  */
 97 #define FIELD_SIZEOF(t, f) (sizeof(((t*)0)->f))
 98 
 99 #define DIV_ROUND_UP __KERNEL_DIV_ROUND_UP
100 
101 #define DIV_ROUND_DOWN_ULL(ll, d) \
102         ({ unsigned long long _tmp = (ll); do_div(_tmp, d); _tmp; })
103 
104 #define DIV_ROUND_UP_ULL(ll, d)         DIV_ROUND_DOWN_ULL((ll) + (d) - 1, (d))
105 
106 #if BITS_PER_LONG == 32
107 # define DIV_ROUND_UP_SECTOR_T(ll,d) DIV_ROUND_UP_ULL(ll, d)
108 #else
109 # define DIV_ROUND_UP_SECTOR_T(ll,d) DIV_ROUND_UP(ll,d)
110 #endif
111 
112 /* The `const' in roundup() prevents gcc-3.3 from calling __divdi3 */
113 #define roundup(x, y) (                                 \
114 {                                                       \
115         const typeof(y) __y = y;                        \
116         (((x) + (__y - 1)) / __y) * __y;                \
117 }                                                       \
118 )
119 #define rounddown(x, y) (                               \
120 {                                                       \
121         typeof(x) __x = (x);                            \
122         __x - (__x % (y));                              \
123 }                                                       \
124 )
125 
126 /*
127  * Divide positive or negative dividend by positive or negative divisor
128  * and round to closest integer. Result is undefined for negative
129  * divisors if the dividend variable type is unsigned and for negative
130  * dividends if the divisor variable type is unsigned.
131  */
132 #define DIV_ROUND_CLOSEST(x, divisor)(                  \
133 {                                                       \
134         typeof(x) __x = x;                              \
135         typeof(divisor) __d = divisor;                  \
136         (((typeof(x))-1) > 0 ||                         \
137          ((typeof(divisor))-1) > 0 ||                   \
138          (((__x) > 0) == ((__d) > 0))) ?                \
139                 (((__x) + ((__d) / 2)) / (__d)) :       \
140                 (((__x) - ((__d) / 2)) / (__d));        \
141 }                                                       \
142 )
143 /*
144  * Same as above but for u64 dividends. divisor must be a 32-bit
145  * number.
146  */
147 #define DIV_ROUND_CLOSEST_ULL(x, divisor)(              \
148 {                                                       \
149         typeof(divisor) __d = divisor;                  \
150         unsigned long long _tmp = (x) + (__d) / 2;      \
151         do_div(_tmp, __d);                              \
152         _tmp;                                           \
153 }                                                       \
154 )
155 
156 /*
157  * Multiplies an integer by a fraction, while avoiding unnecessary
158  * overflow or loss of precision.
159  */
160 #define mult_frac(x, numer, denom)(                     \
161 {                                                       \
162         typeof(x) quot = (x) / (denom);                 \
163         typeof(x) rem  = (x) % (denom);                 \
164         (quot * (numer)) + ((rem * (numer)) / (denom)); \
165 }                                                       \
166 )
167 
168 
169 #define _RET_IP_                (unsigned long)__builtin_return_address(0)
170 #define _THIS_IP_  ({ __label__ __here; __here: (unsigned long)&&__here; })
171 
172 #ifdef CONFIG_LBDAF
173 # include <asm/div64.h>
174 # define sector_div(a, b) do_div(a, b)
175 #else
176 # define sector_div(n, b)( \
177 { \
178         int _res; \
179         _res = (n) % (b); \
180         (n) /= (b); \
181         _res; \
182 } \
183 )
184 #endif
185 
186 /**
187  * upper_32_bits - return bits 32-63 of a number
188  * @n: the number we're accessing
189  *
190  * A basic shift-right of a 64- or 32-bit quantity.  Use this to suppress
191  * the "right shift count >= width of type" warning when that quantity is
192  * 32-bits.
193  */
194 #define upper_32_bits(n) ((u32)(((n) >> 16) >> 16))
195 
196 /**
197  * lower_32_bits - return bits 0-31 of a number
198  * @n: the number we're accessing
199  */
200 #define lower_32_bits(n) ((u32)(n))
201 
202 struct completion;
203 struct pt_regs;
204 struct user;
205 
206 #ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_VOLUNTARY
207 extern int _cond_resched(void);
208 # define might_resched() _cond_resched()
209 #else
210 # define might_resched() do { } while (0)
211 #endif
212 
213 #ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_ATOMIC_SLEEP
214   void ___might_sleep(const char *file, int line, int preempt_offset);
215   void __might_sleep(const char *file, int line, int preempt_offset);
216 /**
217  * might_sleep - annotation for functions that can sleep
218  *
219  * this macro will print a stack trace if it is executed in an atomic
220  * context (spinlock, irq-handler, ...).
221  *
222  * This is a useful debugging help to be able to catch problems early and not
223  * be bitten later when the calling function happens to sleep when it is not
224  * supposed to.
225  */
226 # define might_sleep() \
227         do { __might_sleep(__FILE__, __LINE__, 0); might_resched(); } while (0)
228 # define sched_annotate_sleep() (current->task_state_change = 0)
229 #else
230   static inline void ___might_sleep(const char *file, int line,
231                                    int preempt_offset) { }
232   static inline void __might_sleep(const char *file, int line,
233                                    int preempt_offset) { }
234 # define might_sleep() do { might_resched(); } while (0)
235 # define sched_annotate_sleep() do { } while (0)
236 #endif
237 
238 #define might_sleep_if(cond) do { if (cond) might_sleep(); } while (0)
239 
240 /**
241  * abs - return absolute value of an argument
242  * @x: the value.  If it is unsigned type, it is converted to signed type first.
243  *     char is treated as if it was signed (regardless of whether it really is)
244  *     but the macro's return type is preserved as char.
245  *
246  * Return: an absolute value of x.
247  */
248 #define abs(x)  __abs_choose_expr(x, long long,                         \
249                 __abs_choose_expr(x, long,                              \
250                 __abs_choose_expr(x, int,                               \
251                 __abs_choose_expr(x, short,                             \
252                 __abs_choose_expr(x, char,                              \
253                 __builtin_choose_expr(                                  \
254                         __builtin_types_compatible_p(typeof(x), char),  \
255                         (char)({ signed char __x = (x); __x<0?-__x:__x; }), \
256                         ((void)0)))))))
257 
258 #define __abs_choose_expr(x, type, other) __builtin_choose_expr(        \
259         __builtin_types_compatible_p(typeof(x),   signed type) ||       \
260         __builtin_types_compatible_p(typeof(x), unsigned type),         \
261         ({ signed type __x = (x); __x < 0 ? -__x : __x; }), other)
262 
263 /**
264  * reciprocal_scale - "scale" a value into range [0, ep_ro)
265  * @val: value
266  * @ep_ro: right open interval endpoint
267  *
268  * Perform a "reciprocal multiplication" in order to "scale" a value into
269  * range [0, @ep_ro), where the upper interval endpoint is right-open.
270  * This is useful, e.g. for accessing a index of an array containing
271  * @ep_ro elements, for example. Think of it as sort of modulus, only that
272  * the result isn't that of modulo. ;) Note that if initial input is a
273  * small value, then result will return 0.
274  *
275  * Return: a result based on @val in interval [0, @ep_ro).
276  */
277 static inline u32 reciprocal_scale(u32 val, u32 ep_ro)
278 {
279         return (u32)(((u64) val * ep_ro) >> 32);
280 }
281 
282 #if defined(CONFIG_MMU) && \
283         (defined(CONFIG_PROVE_LOCKING) || defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_ATOMIC_SLEEP))
284 #define might_fault() __might_fault(__FILE__, __LINE__)
285 void __might_fault(const char *file, int line);
286 #else
287 static inline void might_fault(void) { }
288 #endif
289 
290 extern struct atomic_notifier_head panic_notifier_list;
291 extern long (*panic_blink)(int state);
292 __printf(1, 2)
293 void panic(const char *fmt, ...) __noreturn __cold;
294 void nmi_panic(struct pt_regs *regs, const char *msg);
295 extern void oops_enter(void);
296 extern void oops_exit(void);
297 void print_oops_end_marker(void);
298 extern int oops_may_print(void);
299 void do_exit(long error_code) __noreturn;
300 void complete_and_exit(struct completion *, long) __noreturn;
301 
302 #ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT
303 void refcount_error_report(struct pt_regs *regs, const char *err);
304 #else
305 static inline void refcount_error_report(struct pt_regs *regs, const char *err)
306 { }
307 #endif
308 
309 /* Internal, do not use. */
310 int __must_check _kstrtoul(const char *s, unsigned int base, unsigned long *res);
311 int __must_check _kstrtol(const char *s, unsigned int base, long *res);
312 
313 int __must_check kstrtoull(const char *s, unsigned int base, unsigned long long *res);
314 int __must_check kstrtoll(const char *s, unsigned int base, long long *res);
315 
316 /**
317  * kstrtoul - convert a string to an unsigned long
318  * @s: The start of the string. The string must be null-terminated, and may also
319  *  include a single newline before its terminating null. The first character
320  *  may also be a plus sign, but not a minus sign.
321  * @base: The number base to use. The maximum supported base is 16. If base is
322  *  given as 0, then the base of the string is automatically detected with the
323  *  conventional semantics - If it begins with 0x the number will be parsed as a
324  *  hexadecimal (case insensitive), if it otherwise begins with 0, it will be
325  *  parsed as an octal number. Otherwise it will be parsed as a decimal.
326  * @res: Where to write the result of the conversion on success.
327  *
328  * Returns 0 on success, -ERANGE on overflow and -EINVAL on parsing error.
329  * Used as a replacement for the obsolete simple_strtoull. Return code must
330  * be checked.
331 */
332 static inline int __must_check kstrtoul(const char *s, unsigned int base, unsigned long *res)
333 {
334         /*
335          * We want to shortcut function call, but
336          * __builtin_types_compatible_p(unsigned long, unsigned long long) = 0.
337          */
338         if (sizeof(unsigned long) == sizeof(unsigned long long) &&
339             __alignof__(unsigned long) == __alignof__(unsigned long long))
340                 return kstrtoull(s, base, (unsigned long long *)res);
341         else
342                 return _kstrtoul(s, base, res);
343 }
344 
345 /**
346  * kstrtol - convert a string to a long
347  * @s: The start of the string. The string must be null-terminated, and may also
348  *  include a single newline before its terminating null. The first character
349  *  may also be a plus sign or a minus sign.
350  * @base: The number base to use. The maximum supported base is 16. If base is
351  *  given as 0, then the base of the string is automatically detected with the
352  *  conventional semantics - If it begins with 0x the number will be parsed as a
353  *  hexadecimal (case insensitive), if it otherwise begins with 0, it will be
354  *  parsed as an octal number. Otherwise it will be parsed as a decimal.
355  * @res: Where to write the result of the conversion on success.
356  *
357  * Returns 0 on success, -ERANGE on overflow and -EINVAL on parsing error.
358  * Used as a replacement for the obsolete simple_strtoull. Return code must
359  * be checked.
360  */
361 static inline int __must_check kstrtol(const char *s, unsigned int base, long *res)
362 {
363         /*
364          * We want to shortcut function call, but
365          * __builtin_types_compatible_p(long, long long) = 0.
366          */
367         if (sizeof(long) == sizeof(long long) &&
368             __alignof__(long) == __alignof__(long long))
369                 return kstrtoll(s, base, (long long *)res);
370         else
371                 return _kstrtol(s, base, res);
372 }
373 
374 int __must_check kstrtouint(const char *s, unsigned int base, unsigned int *res);
375 int __must_check kstrtoint(const char *s, unsigned int base, int *res);
376 
377 static inline int __must_check kstrtou64(const char *s, unsigned int base, u64 *res)
378 {
379         return kstrtoull(s, base, res);
380 }
381 
382 static inline int __must_check kstrtos64(const char *s, unsigned int base, s64 *res)
383 {
384         return kstrtoll(s, base, res);
385 }
386 
387 static inline int __must_check kstrtou32(const char *s, unsigned int base, u32 *res)
388 {
389         return kstrtouint(s, base, res);
390 }
391 
392 static inline int __must_check kstrtos32(const char *s, unsigned int base, s32 *res)
393 {
394         return kstrtoint(s, base, res);
395 }
396 
397 int __must_check kstrtou16(const char *s, unsigned int base, u16 *res);
398 int __must_check kstrtos16(const char *s, unsigned int base, s16 *res);
399 int __must_check kstrtou8(const char *s, unsigned int base, u8 *res);
400 int __must_check kstrtos8(const char *s, unsigned int base, s8 *res);
401 int __must_check kstrtobool(const char *s, bool *res);
402 
403 int __must_check kstrtoull_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, unsigned long long *res);
404 int __must_check kstrtoll_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, long long *res);
405 int __must_check kstrtoul_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, unsigned long *res);
406 int __must_check kstrtol_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, long *res);
407 int __must_check kstrtouint_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, unsigned int *res);
408 int __must_check kstrtoint_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, int *res);
409 int __must_check kstrtou16_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, u16 *res);
410 int __must_check kstrtos16_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, s16 *res);
411 int __must_check kstrtou8_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, u8 *res);
412 int __must_check kstrtos8_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, s8 *res);
413 int __must_check kstrtobool_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, bool *res);
414 
415 static inline int __must_check kstrtou64_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, u64 *res)
416 {
417         return kstrtoull_from_user(s, count, base, res);
418 }
419 
420 static inline int __must_check kstrtos64_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, s64 *res)
421 {
422         return kstrtoll_from_user(s, count, base, res);
423 }
424 
425 static inline int __must_check kstrtou32_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, u32 *res)
426 {
427         return kstrtouint_from_user(s, count, base, res);
428 }
429 
430 static inline int __must_check kstrtos32_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, s32 *res)
431 {
432         return kstrtoint_from_user(s, count, base, res);
433 }
434 
435 /* Obsolete, do not use.  Use kstrto<foo> instead */
436 
437 extern unsigned long simple_strtoul(const char *,char **,unsigned int);
438 extern long simple_strtol(const char *,char **,unsigned int);
439 extern unsigned long long simple_strtoull(const char *,char **,unsigned int);
440 extern long long simple_strtoll(const char *,char **,unsigned int);
441 
442 extern int num_to_str(char *buf, int size, unsigned long long num);
443 
444 /* lib/printf utilities */
445 
446 extern __printf(2, 3) int sprintf(char *buf, const char * fmt, ...);
447 extern __printf(2, 0) int vsprintf(char *buf, const char *, va_list);
448 extern __printf(3, 4)
449 int snprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, ...);
450 extern __printf(3, 0)
451 int vsnprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, va_list args);
452 extern __printf(3, 4)
453 int scnprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, ...);
454 extern __printf(3, 0)
455 int vscnprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, va_list args);
456 extern __printf(2, 3) __malloc
457 char *kasprintf(gfp_t gfp, const char *fmt, ...);
458 extern __printf(2, 0) __malloc
459 char *kvasprintf(gfp_t gfp, const char *fmt, va_list args);
460 extern __printf(2, 0)
461 const char *kvasprintf_const(gfp_t gfp, const char *fmt, va_list args);
462 
463 extern __scanf(2, 3)
464 int sscanf(const char *, const char *, ...);
465 extern __scanf(2, 0)
466 int vsscanf(const char *, const char *, va_list);
467 
468 extern int get_option(char **str, int *pint);
469 extern char *get_options(const char *str, int nints, int *ints);
470 extern unsigned long long memparse(const char *ptr, char **retptr);
471 extern bool parse_option_str(const char *str, const char *option);
472 extern char *next_arg(char *args, char **param, char **val);
473 
474 extern int core_kernel_text(unsigned long addr);
475 extern int core_kernel_data(unsigned long addr);
476 extern int __kernel_text_address(unsigned long addr);
477 extern int kernel_text_address(unsigned long addr);
478 extern int func_ptr_is_kernel_text(void *ptr);
479 
480 unsigned long int_sqrt(unsigned long);
481 
482 extern void bust_spinlocks(int yes);
483 extern int oops_in_progress;            /* If set, an oops, panic(), BUG() or die() is in progress */
484 extern int panic_timeout;
485 extern int panic_on_oops;
486 extern int panic_on_unrecovered_nmi;
487 extern int panic_on_io_nmi;
488 extern int panic_on_warn;
489 extern int sysctl_panic_on_rcu_stall;
490 extern int sysctl_panic_on_stackoverflow;
491 
492 extern bool crash_kexec_post_notifiers;
493 
494 /*
495  * panic_cpu is used for synchronizing panic() and crash_kexec() execution. It
496  * holds a CPU number which is executing panic() currently. A value of
497  * PANIC_CPU_INVALID means no CPU has entered panic() or crash_kexec().
498  */
499 extern atomic_t panic_cpu;
500 #define PANIC_CPU_INVALID       -1
501 
502 /*
503  * Only to be used by arch init code. If the user over-wrote the default
504  * CONFIG_PANIC_TIMEOUT, honor it.
505  */
506 static inline void set_arch_panic_timeout(int timeout, int arch_default_timeout)
507 {
508         if (panic_timeout == arch_default_timeout)
509                 panic_timeout = timeout;
510 }
511 extern const char *print_tainted(void);
512 enum lockdep_ok {
513         LOCKDEP_STILL_OK,
514         LOCKDEP_NOW_UNRELIABLE
515 };
516 extern void add_taint(unsigned flag, enum lockdep_ok);
517 extern int test_taint(unsigned flag);
518 extern unsigned long get_taint(void);
519 extern int root_mountflags;
520 
521 extern bool early_boot_irqs_disabled;
522 
523 /*
524  * Values used for system_state. Ordering of the states must not be changed
525  * as code checks for <, <=, >, >= STATE.
526  */
527 extern enum system_states {
528         SYSTEM_BOOTING,
529         SYSTEM_SCHEDULING,
530         SYSTEM_RUNNING,
531         SYSTEM_HALT,
532         SYSTEM_POWER_OFF,
533         SYSTEM_RESTART,
534 } system_state;
535 
536 #define TAINT_PROPRIETARY_MODULE        0
537 #define TAINT_FORCED_MODULE             1
538 #define TAINT_CPU_OUT_OF_SPEC           2
539 #define TAINT_FORCED_RMMOD              3
540 #define TAINT_MACHINE_CHECK             4
541 #define TAINT_BAD_PAGE                  5
542 #define TAINT_USER                      6
543 #define TAINT_DIE                       7
544 #define TAINT_OVERRIDDEN_ACPI_TABLE     8
545 #define TAINT_WARN                      9
546 #define TAINT_CRAP                      10
547 #define TAINT_FIRMWARE_WORKAROUND       11
548 #define TAINT_OOT_MODULE                12
549 #define TAINT_UNSIGNED_MODULE           13
550 #define TAINT_SOFTLOCKUP                14
551 #define TAINT_LIVEPATCH                 15
552 #define TAINT_AUX                       16
553 #define TAINT_FLAGS_COUNT               17
554 
555 struct taint_flag {
556         char c_true;    /* character printed when tainted */
557         char c_false;   /* character printed when not tainted */
558         bool module;    /* also show as a per-module taint flag */
559 };
560 
561 extern const struct taint_flag taint_flags[TAINT_FLAGS_COUNT];
562 
563 extern const char hex_asc[];
564 #define hex_asc_lo(x)   hex_asc[((x) & 0x0f)]
565 #define hex_asc_hi(x)   hex_asc[((x) & 0xf0) >> 4]
566 
567 static inline char *hex_byte_pack(char *buf, u8 byte)
568 {
569         *buf++ = hex_asc_hi(byte);
570         *buf++ = hex_asc_lo(byte);
571         return buf;
572 }
573 
574 extern const char hex_asc_upper[];
575 #define hex_asc_upper_lo(x)     hex_asc_upper[((x) & 0x0f)]
576 #define hex_asc_upper_hi(x)     hex_asc_upper[((x) & 0xf0) >> 4]
577 
578 static inline char *hex_byte_pack_upper(char *buf, u8 byte)
579 {
580         *buf++ = hex_asc_upper_hi(byte);
581         *buf++ = hex_asc_upper_lo(byte);
582         return buf;
583 }
584 
585 extern int hex_to_bin(char ch);
586 extern int __must_check hex2bin(u8 *dst, const char *src, size_t count);
587 extern char *bin2hex(char *dst, const void *src, size_t count);
588 
589 bool mac_pton(const char *s, u8 *mac);
590 
591 /*
592  * General tracing related utility functions - trace_printk(),
593  * tracing_on/tracing_off and tracing_start()/tracing_stop
594  *
595  * Use tracing_on/tracing_off when you want to quickly turn on or off
596  * tracing. It simply enables or disables the recording of the trace events.
597  * This also corresponds to the user space /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/tracing_on
598  * file, which gives a means for the kernel and userspace to interact.
599  * Place a tracing_off() in the kernel where you want tracing to end.
600  * From user space, examine the trace, and then echo 1 > tracing_on
601  * to continue tracing.
602  *
603  * tracing_stop/tracing_start has slightly more overhead. It is used
604  * by things like suspend to ram where disabling the recording of the
605  * trace is not enough, but tracing must actually stop because things
606  * like calling smp_processor_id() may crash the system.
607  *
608  * Most likely, you want to use tracing_on/tracing_off.
609  */
610 
611 enum ftrace_dump_mode {
612         DUMP_NONE,
613         DUMP_ALL,
614         DUMP_ORIG,
615 };
616 
617 #ifdef CONFIG_TRACING
618 void tracing_on(void);
619 void tracing_off(void);
620 int tracing_is_on(void);
621 void tracing_snapshot(void);
622 void tracing_snapshot_alloc(void);
623 
624 extern void tracing_start(void);
625 extern void tracing_stop(void);
626 
627 static inline __printf(1, 2)
628 void ____trace_printk_check_format(const char *fmt, ...)
629 {
630 }
631 #define __trace_printk_check_format(fmt, args...)                       \
632 do {                                                                    \
633         if (0)                                                          \
634                 ____trace_printk_check_format(fmt, ##args);             \
635 } while (0)
636 
637 /**
638  * trace_printk - printf formatting in the ftrace buffer
639  * @fmt: the printf format for printing
640  *
641  * Note: __trace_printk is an internal function for trace_printk() and
642  *       the @ip is passed in via the trace_printk() macro.
643  *
644  * This function allows a kernel developer to debug fast path sections
645  * that printk is not appropriate for. By scattering in various
646  * printk like tracing in the code, a developer can quickly see
647  * where problems are occurring.
648  *
649  * This is intended as a debugging tool for the developer only.
650  * Please refrain from leaving trace_printks scattered around in
651  * your code. (Extra memory is used for special buffers that are
652  * allocated when trace_printk() is used.)
653  *
654  * A little optization trick is done here. If there's only one
655  * argument, there's no need to scan the string for printf formats.
656  * The trace_puts() will suffice. But how can we take advantage of
657  * using trace_puts() when trace_printk() has only one argument?
658  * By stringifying the args and checking the size we can tell
659  * whether or not there are args. __stringify((__VA_ARGS__)) will
660  * turn into "()\0" with a size of 3 when there are no args, anything
661  * else will be bigger. All we need to do is define a string to this,
662  * and then take its size and compare to 3. If it's bigger, use
663  * do_trace_printk() otherwise, optimize it to trace_puts(). Then just
664  * let gcc optimize the rest.
665  */
666 
667 #define trace_printk(fmt, ...)                          \
668 do {                                                    \
669         char _______STR[] = __stringify((__VA_ARGS__)); \
670         if (sizeof(_______STR) > 3)                     \
671                 do_trace_printk(fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__);    \
672         else                                            \
673                 trace_puts(fmt);                        \
674 } while (0)
675 
676 #define do_trace_printk(fmt, args...)                                   \
677 do {                                                                    \
678         static const char *trace_printk_fmt __used                      \
679                 __attribute__((section("__trace_printk_fmt"))) =        \
680                 __builtin_constant_p(fmt) ? fmt : NULL;                 \
681                                                                         \
682         __trace_printk_check_format(fmt, ##args);                       \
683                                                                         \
684         if (__builtin_constant_p(fmt))                                  \
685                 __trace_bprintk(_THIS_IP_, trace_printk_fmt, ##args);   \
686         else                                                            \
687                 __trace_printk(_THIS_IP_, fmt, ##args);                 \
688 } while (0)
689 
690 extern __printf(2, 3)
691 int __trace_bprintk(unsigned long ip, const char *fmt, ...);
692 
693 extern __printf(2, 3)
694 int __trace_printk(unsigned long ip, const char *fmt, ...);
695 
696 /**
697  * trace_puts - write a string into the ftrace buffer
698  * @str: the string to record
699  *
700  * Note: __trace_bputs is an internal function for trace_puts and
701  *       the @ip is passed in via the trace_puts macro.
702  *
703  * This is similar to trace_printk() but is made for those really fast
704  * paths that a developer wants the least amount of "Heisenbug" effects,
705  * where the processing of the print format is still too much.
706  *
707  * This function allows a kernel developer to debug fast path sections
708  * that printk is not appropriate for. By scattering in various
709  * printk like tracing in the code, a developer can quickly see
710  * where problems are occurring.
711  *
712  * This is intended as a debugging tool for the developer only.
713  * Please refrain from leaving trace_puts scattered around in
714  * your code. (Extra memory is used for special buffers that are
715  * allocated when trace_puts() is used.)
716  *
717  * Returns: 0 if nothing was written, positive # if string was.
718  *  (1 when __trace_bputs is used, strlen(str) when __trace_puts is used)
719  */
720 
721 #define trace_puts(str) ({                                              \
722         static const char *trace_printk_fmt __used                      \
723                 __attribute__((section("__trace_printk_fmt"))) =        \
724                 __builtin_constant_p(str) ? str : NULL;                 \
725                                                                         \
726         if (__builtin_constant_p(str))                                  \
727                 __trace_bputs(_THIS_IP_, trace_printk_fmt);             \
728         else                                                            \
729                 __trace_puts(_THIS_IP_, str, strlen(str));              \
730 })
731 extern int __trace_bputs(unsigned long ip, const char *str);
732 extern int __trace_puts(unsigned long ip, const char *str, int size);
733 
734 extern void trace_dump_stack(int skip);
735 
736 /*
737  * The double __builtin_constant_p is because gcc will give us an error
738  * if we try to allocate the static variable to fmt if it is not a
739  * constant. Even with the outer if statement.
740  */
741 #define ftrace_vprintk(fmt, vargs)                                      \
742 do {                                                                    \
743         if (__builtin_constant_p(fmt)) {                                \
744                 static const char *trace_printk_fmt __used              \
745                   __attribute__((section("__trace_printk_fmt"))) =      \
746                         __builtin_constant_p(fmt) ? fmt : NULL;         \
747                                                                         \
748                 __ftrace_vbprintk(_THIS_IP_, trace_printk_fmt, vargs);  \
749         } else                                                          \
750                 __ftrace_vprintk(_THIS_IP_, fmt, vargs);                \
751 } while (0)
752 
753 extern __printf(2, 0) int
754 __ftrace_vbprintk(unsigned long ip, const char *fmt, va_list ap);
755 
756 extern __printf(2, 0) int
757 __ftrace_vprintk(unsigned long ip, const char *fmt, va_list ap);
758 
759 extern void ftrace_dump(enum ftrace_dump_mode oops_dump_mode);
760 #else
761 static inline void tracing_start(void) { }
762 static inline void tracing_stop(void) { }
763 static inline void trace_dump_stack(int skip) { }
764 
765 static inline void tracing_on(void) { }
766 static inline void tracing_off(void) { }
767 static inline int tracing_is_on(void) { return 0; }
768 static inline void tracing_snapshot(void) { }
769 static inline void tracing_snapshot_alloc(void) { }
770 
771 static inline __printf(1, 2)
772 int trace_printk(const char *fmt, ...)
773 {
774         return 0;
775 }
776 static __printf(1, 0) inline int
777 ftrace_vprintk(const char *fmt, va_list ap)
778 {
779         return 0;
780 }
781 static inline void ftrace_dump(enum ftrace_dump_mode oops_dump_mode) { }
782 #endif /* CONFIG_TRACING */
783 
784 /*
785  * min()/max()/clamp() macros that also do
786  * strict type-checking.. See the
787  * "unnecessary" pointer comparison.
788  */
789 #define __min(t1, t2, min1, min2, x, y) ({              \
790         t1 min1 = (x);                                  \
791         t2 min2 = (y);                                  \
792         (void) (&min1 == &min2);                        \
793         min1 < min2 ? min1 : min2; })
794 
795 /**
796  * min - return minimum of two values of the same or compatible types
797  * @x: first value
798  * @y: second value
799  */
800 #define min(x, y)                                       \
801         __min(typeof(x), typeof(y),                     \
802               __UNIQUE_ID(min1_), __UNIQUE_ID(min2_),   \
803               x, y)
804 
805 #define __max(t1, t2, max1, max2, x, y) ({              \
806         t1 max1 = (x);                                  \
807         t2 max2 = (y);                                  \
808         (void) (&max1 == &max2);                        \
809         max1 > max2 ? max1 : max2; })
810 
811 /**
812  * max - return maximum of two values of the same or compatible types
813  * @x: first value
814  * @y: second value
815  */
816 #define max(x, y)                                       \
817         __max(typeof(x), typeof(y),                     \
818               __UNIQUE_ID(max1_), __UNIQUE_ID(max2_),   \
819               x, y)
820 
821 /**
822  * min3 - return minimum of three values
823  * @x: first value
824  * @y: second value
825  * @z: third value
826  */
827 #define min3(x, y, z) min((typeof(x))min(x, y), z)
828 
829 /**
830  * max3 - return maximum of three values
831  * @x: first value
832  * @y: second value
833  * @z: third value
834  */
835 #define max3(x, y, z) max((typeof(x))max(x, y), z)
836 
837 /**
838  * min_not_zero - return the minimum that is _not_ zero, unless both are zero
839  * @x: value1
840  * @y: value2
841  */
842 #define min_not_zero(x, y) ({                   \
843         typeof(x) __x = (x);                    \
844         typeof(y) __y = (y);                    \
845         __x == 0 ? __y : ((__y == 0) ? __x : min(__x, __y)); })
846 
847 /**
848  * clamp - return a value clamped to a given range with strict typechecking
849  * @val: current value
850  * @lo: lowest allowable value
851  * @hi: highest allowable value
852  *
853  * This macro does strict typechecking of @lo/@hi to make sure they are of the
854  * same type as @val.  See the unnecessary pointer comparisons.
855  */
856 #define clamp(val, lo, hi) min((typeof(val))max(val, lo), hi)
857 
858 /*
859  * ..and if you can't take the strict
860  * types, you can specify one yourself.
861  *
862  * Or not use min/max/clamp at all, of course.
863  */
864 
865 /**
866  * min_t - return minimum of two values, using the specified type
867  * @type: data type to use
868  * @x: first value
869  * @y: second value
870  */
871 #define min_t(type, x, y)                               \
872         __min(type, type,                               \
873               __UNIQUE_ID(min1_), __UNIQUE_ID(min2_),   \
874               x, y)
875 
876 /**
877  * max_t - return maximum of two values, using the specified type
878  * @type: data type to use
879  * @x: first value
880  * @y: second value
881  */
882 #define max_t(type, x, y)                               \
883         __max(type, type,                               \
884               __UNIQUE_ID(min1_), __UNIQUE_ID(min2_),   \
885               x, y)
886 
887 /**
888  * clamp_t - return a value clamped to a given range using a given type
889  * @type: the type of variable to use
890  * @val: current value
891  * @lo: minimum allowable value
892  * @hi: maximum allowable value
893  *
894  * This macro does no typechecking and uses temporary variables of type
895  * @type to make all the comparisons.
896  */
897 #define clamp_t(type, val, lo, hi) min_t(type, max_t(type, val, lo), hi)
898 
899 /**
900  * clamp_val - return a value clamped to a given range using val's type
901  * @val: current value
902  * @lo: minimum allowable value
903  * @hi: maximum allowable value
904  *
905  * This macro does no typechecking and uses temporary variables of whatever
906  * type the input argument @val is.  This is useful when @val is an unsigned
907  * type and @lo and @hi are literals that will otherwise be assigned a signed
908  * integer type.
909  */
910 #define clamp_val(val, lo, hi) clamp_t(typeof(val), val, lo, hi)
911 
912 
913 /**
914  * swap - swap values of @a and @b
915  * @a: first value
916  * @b: second value
917  */
918 #define swap(a, b) \
919         do { typeof(a) __tmp = (a); (a) = (b); (b) = __tmp; } while (0)
920 
921 /**
922  * container_of - cast a member of a structure out to the containing structure
923  * @ptr:        the pointer to the member.
924  * @type:       the type of the container struct this is embedded in.
925  * @member:     the name of the member within the struct.
926  *
927  */
928 #define container_of(ptr, type, member) ({                              \
929         void *__mptr = (void *)(ptr);                                   \
930         BUILD_BUG_ON_MSG(!__same_type(*(ptr), ((type *)0)->member) &&   \
931                          !__same_type(*(ptr), void),                    \
932                          "pointer type mismatch in container_of()");    \
933         ((type *)(__mptr - offsetof(type, member))); })
934 
935 /* Rebuild everything on CONFIG_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD */
936 #ifdef CONFIG_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
937 # define REBUILD_DUE_TO_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
938 #endif
939 
940 /* Permissions on a sysfs file: you didn't miss the 0 prefix did you? */
941 #define VERIFY_OCTAL_PERMISSIONS(perms)                                         \
942         (BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((perms) < 0) +                                       \
943          BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((perms) > 0777) +                                    \
944          /* USER_READABLE >= GROUP_READABLE >= OTHER_READABLE */                \
945          BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((((perms) >> 6) & 4) < (((perms) >> 3) & 4)) +       \
946          BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((((perms) >> 3) & 4) < ((perms) & 4)) +              \
947          /* USER_WRITABLE >= GROUP_WRITABLE */                                  \
948          BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((((perms) >> 6) & 2) < (((perms) >> 3) & 2)) +       \
949          /* OTHER_WRITABLE?  Generally considered a bad idea. */                \
950          BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((perms) & 2) +                                       \
951          (perms))
952 #endif
953 

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